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Prasad S. Kasibhatla

Professor in the Division of Environmental Sciences and Policy
Environmental Sciences and Policy
Box 90328, Durham, NC 27708-0328
Room 5114, Environment Hall, 9 Circuit Drive, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708

Selected Publications


Analysis of overdispersion in airborne transmission of COVID-19

Journal Article Physics of Fluids · May 1, 2022 Superspreading events and overdispersion are hallmarks of the COVID-19 pandemic. However, the specific roles and influence of established viral and physical factors related to the mechanisms of transmission, on overdispersion, remain unresolved. We, theref ... Full text Cite

Constraining remote oxidation capacity with ATom observations.

Journal Article Atmospheric chemistry and physics · July 2020 The global oxidation capacity, defined as the tropospheric mean concentration of the hydroxyl radical (OH), controls the lifetime of reactive trace gases in the atmosphere such as methane and carbon monoxide (CO). Models tend to underestimate the methane l ... Full text Cite

Global inorganic nitrate production mechanisms: Comparison of a global model with nitrate isotope observations

Journal Article Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics · March 31, 2020 The formation of inorganic nitrate is the main sink for nitrogen oxides (NOx DNOCNO2). Due to the importance of NOx for the formation of tropospheric oxidants such as the hydroxyl radical (OH) and ozone, understanding the mechanisms and rates of nitrate fo ... Full text Cite

Magnitude, trends, and impacts of ambient long-term ozone exposure in the United States from 2000 to 2015

Journal Article Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics · February 14, 2020 Long-term exposure to ambient ozone (O3) is associated with a variety of impacts, including adverse humanhealth effects and reduced yields in commercial crops. Ground-level O3 concentrations for assessments are typically predicted using chemical transport ... Full text Cite

What causes deforestation in Indonesia?

Journal Article Environmental Research Letters · February 1, 2019 We investigate the causes of deforestation in Indonesia, a country with one of the highest rates of primary natural forest loss in the tropics, annually between 2001 and 2016. We use high spatial resolution imagery made available on Google Earth to charact ... Full text Cite

Spatial Patterns of Crop Yield Change by Emitted Pollutant.

Journal Article Earth's future · February 2019 Field measurements and modeling have examined how temperature, precipitation, and exposure to carbon dioxide (CO2) and ozone affect major staple crops around the world. Most prior studies, however, have incorporated only a subset of these influe ... Full text Cite

Global impact of nitrate photolysis in sea-salt aerosol on NOx, OH, and O3 in the marine boundary layer

Journal Article Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics · August 10, 2018 Recent field studies have suggested that sea-salt particulate nitrate (NITs) photolysis may act as a significant local source of nitrogen oxides (NOx) over oceans. We present a study of the global impact of this process on oxidant concentrations in the mar ... Full text Cite

A review of land-based greenhouse gas flux estimates in Indonesia

Journal Article Environmental Research Letters · May 1, 2018 This study examines underlying reasons for differences among land-based greenhouse gas flux estimates in Indonesia, where six national inventories reported average emissions of between 0.4 and 1.1 Gt CO2e yr-1 over the 2000-2012 period. The large range amo ... Full text Cite

Shifting patterns of oil palm driven deforestation in Indonesia and implications for zero-deforestation commitments

Journal Article Land Use Policy · December 1, 2017 Oil palm plantations in Indonesia have been linked to substantial deforestation in the 1990s and 2000s, though recent studies suggest that new plantations are increasingly developed on non-forest land. Without nationwide data to establish recent baseline t ... Full text Cite

Global fire emissions estimates during 1997-2016

Journal Article Earth System Science Data · September 12, 2017 Climate, land use, and other anthropogenic and natural drivers have the potential to influence fire dynamics in many regions. To develop a mechanistic understanding of the changing role of these drivers and their impact on atmospheric composition, long-ter ... Full text Cite

A human-driven decline in global burned area.

Journal Article Science (New York, N.Y.) · June 2017 Fire is an essential Earth system process that alters ecosystem and atmospheric composition. Here we assessed long-term fire trends using multiple satellite data sets. We found that global burned area declined by 24.3 ± 8.8% over the past 18 years. The est ... Full text Cite

An assessment of high carbon stock and high conservation value approaches to sustainable oil palm cultivation in Gabon

Journal Article Environmental Research Letters · January 1, 2017 Industrial-scale oil palm cultivation is rapidly expanding in Gabon, where it has the potential to drive economic growth, but also threatens forest, biodiversity and carbon resources. The Gabonese government is promoting an ambitious agricultural expansion ... Full text Open Access Cite

Lightning and atmospheric chemistry: The rate of atmospheric NO production

Chapter · January 1, 2017 Although 80% of the atmosphere is composed of molecular nitrogen (N2), this element is often the limiting nutrient in both terrestrial and marine photosynthesis. The reason for this apparent paradox arises from the high chemical stability of nitrogen when ... Full text Cite

Impacts of current and projected oil palm plantation expansion on air quality over Southeast Asia

Journal Article Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics · August 26, 2016 Over recent decades oil palm plantations have rapidly expanded across Southeast Asia (SEA). According to the United Nations, oil palm production in SEA increased by a factor of 3 from 1995 to 2010. We investigate the impacts of current (2010) and near-term ... Full text Cite

Rethinking the global secondary organic aerosol (SOA) budget: Stronger production, faster removal, shorter lifetime

Journal Article Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics · June 29, 2016 Recent laboratory studies suggest that secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation rates are higher than assumed in current models. There is also evidence that SOA removal by dry and wet deposition occurs more efficiently than some current models suggest and ... Full text Cite

Organic photolysis reactions in tropospheric aerosols: Effect on secondary organic aerosol formation and lifetime

Journal Article Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics · August 20, 2015 This study presents the first modeling estimates of the potential effect of gas- and particle-phase organic photolysis reactions on the formation and lifetime of secondary organic aerosols (SOAs). Typically only photolysis of smaller organic molecules (e.g ... Full text Cite

Reconciling oil palm expansion and climate change mitigation in Kalimantan, Indonesia.

Journal Article PloS one · January 2015 Our society faces the pressing challenge of increasing agricultural production while minimizing negative consequences on ecosystems and the global climate. Indonesia, which has pledged to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from deforestation while doubl ... Full text Open Access Cite

Separating the influence of temperature, drought, and fire on interannual variability in atmospheric CO2.

Journal Article Global biogeochemical cycles · November 2014 The response of the carbon cycle in prognostic Earth system models (ESMs) contributes significant uncertainty to projections of global climate change. Quantifying contributions of known drivers of interannual variability in the growth rate of atmospheric c ... Full text Cite

Global chemical composition of ambient fine particulate matter for exposure assessment.

Journal Article Environmental science & technology · November 2014 Epidemiologic and health impact studies are inhibited by the paucity of global, long-term measurements of the chemical composition of fine particulate matter. We inferred PM2.5 chemical composition at 0.1° × 0.1° spatial resolution for 2004-2008 by combini ... Full text Cite

Analysis of overdispersion in airborne transmission of COVID-19

Journal Article Physics of Fluids · May 1, 2022 Superspreading events and overdispersion are hallmarks of the COVID-19 pandemic. However, the specific roles and influence of established viral and physical factors related to the mechanisms of transmission, on overdispersion, remain unresolved. We, theref ... Full text Cite

Constraining remote oxidation capacity with ATom observations.

Journal Article Atmospheric chemistry and physics · July 2020 The global oxidation capacity, defined as the tropospheric mean concentration of the hydroxyl radical (OH), controls the lifetime of reactive trace gases in the atmosphere such as methane and carbon monoxide (CO). Models tend to underestimate the methane l ... Full text Cite

Global inorganic nitrate production mechanisms: Comparison of a global model with nitrate isotope observations

Journal Article Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics · March 31, 2020 The formation of inorganic nitrate is the main sink for nitrogen oxides (NOx DNOCNO2). Due to the importance of NOx for the formation of tropospheric oxidants such as the hydroxyl radical (OH) and ozone, understanding the mechanisms and rates of nitrate fo ... Full text Cite

Magnitude, trends, and impacts of ambient long-term ozone exposure in the United States from 2000 to 2015

Journal Article Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics · February 14, 2020 Long-term exposure to ambient ozone (O3) is associated with a variety of impacts, including adverse humanhealth effects and reduced yields in commercial crops. Ground-level O3 concentrations for assessments are typically predicted using chemical transport ... Full text Cite

What causes deforestation in Indonesia?

Journal Article Environmental Research Letters · February 1, 2019 We investigate the causes of deforestation in Indonesia, a country with one of the highest rates of primary natural forest loss in the tropics, annually between 2001 and 2016. We use high spatial resolution imagery made available on Google Earth to charact ... Full text Cite

Spatial Patterns of Crop Yield Change by Emitted Pollutant.

Journal Article Earth's future · February 2019 Field measurements and modeling have examined how temperature, precipitation, and exposure to carbon dioxide (CO2) and ozone affect major staple crops around the world. Most prior studies, however, have incorporated only a subset of these influe ... Full text Cite

Global impact of nitrate photolysis in sea-salt aerosol on NOx, OH, and O3 in the marine boundary layer

Journal Article Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics · August 10, 2018 Recent field studies have suggested that sea-salt particulate nitrate (NITs) photolysis may act as a significant local source of nitrogen oxides (NOx) over oceans. We present a study of the global impact of this process on oxidant concentrations in the mar ... Full text Cite

A review of land-based greenhouse gas flux estimates in Indonesia

Journal Article Environmental Research Letters · May 1, 2018 This study examines underlying reasons for differences among land-based greenhouse gas flux estimates in Indonesia, where six national inventories reported average emissions of between 0.4 and 1.1 Gt CO2e yr-1 over the 2000-2012 period. The large range amo ... Full text Cite

Shifting patterns of oil palm driven deforestation in Indonesia and implications for zero-deforestation commitments

Journal Article Land Use Policy · December 1, 2017 Oil palm plantations in Indonesia have been linked to substantial deforestation in the 1990s and 2000s, though recent studies suggest that new plantations are increasingly developed on non-forest land. Without nationwide data to establish recent baseline t ... Full text Cite

Global fire emissions estimates during 1997-2016

Journal Article Earth System Science Data · September 12, 2017 Climate, land use, and other anthropogenic and natural drivers have the potential to influence fire dynamics in many regions. To develop a mechanistic understanding of the changing role of these drivers and their impact on atmospheric composition, long-ter ... Full text Cite

A human-driven decline in global burned area.

Journal Article Science (New York, N.Y.) · June 2017 Fire is an essential Earth system process that alters ecosystem and atmospheric composition. Here we assessed long-term fire trends using multiple satellite data sets. We found that global burned area declined by 24.3 ± 8.8% over the past 18 years. The est ... Full text Cite

An assessment of high carbon stock and high conservation value approaches to sustainable oil palm cultivation in Gabon

Journal Article Environmental Research Letters · January 1, 2017 Industrial-scale oil palm cultivation is rapidly expanding in Gabon, where it has the potential to drive economic growth, but also threatens forest, biodiversity and carbon resources. The Gabonese government is promoting an ambitious agricultural expansion ... Full text Open Access Cite

Lightning and atmospheric chemistry: The rate of atmospheric NO production

Chapter · January 1, 2017 Although 80% of the atmosphere is composed of molecular nitrogen (N2), this element is often the limiting nutrient in both terrestrial and marine photosynthesis. The reason for this apparent paradox arises from the high chemical stability of nitrogen when ... Full text Cite

Impacts of current and projected oil palm plantation expansion on air quality over Southeast Asia

Journal Article Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics · August 26, 2016 Over recent decades oil palm plantations have rapidly expanded across Southeast Asia (SEA). According to the United Nations, oil palm production in SEA increased by a factor of 3 from 1995 to 2010. We investigate the impacts of current (2010) and near-term ... Full text Cite

Rethinking the global secondary organic aerosol (SOA) budget: Stronger production, faster removal, shorter lifetime

Journal Article Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics · June 29, 2016 Recent laboratory studies suggest that secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation rates are higher than assumed in current models. There is also evidence that SOA removal by dry and wet deposition occurs more efficiently than some current models suggest and ... Full text Cite

Organic photolysis reactions in tropospheric aerosols: Effect on secondary organic aerosol formation and lifetime

Journal Article Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics · August 20, 2015 This study presents the first modeling estimates of the potential effect of gas- and particle-phase organic photolysis reactions on the formation and lifetime of secondary organic aerosols (SOAs). Typically only photolysis of smaller organic molecules (e.g ... Full text Cite

Reconciling oil palm expansion and climate change mitigation in Kalimantan, Indonesia.

Journal Article PloS one · January 2015 Our society faces the pressing challenge of increasing agricultural production while minimizing negative consequences on ecosystems and the global climate. Indonesia, which has pledged to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from deforestation while doubl ... Full text Open Access Cite

Separating the influence of temperature, drought, and fire on interannual variability in atmospheric CO2.

Journal Article Global biogeochemical cycles · November 2014 The response of the carbon cycle in prognostic Earth system models (ESMs) contributes significant uncertainty to projections of global climate change. Quantifying contributions of known drivers of interannual variability in the growth rate of atmospheric c ... Full text Cite

Global chemical composition of ambient fine particulate matter for exposure assessment.

Journal Article Environmental science & technology · November 2014 Epidemiologic and health impact studies are inhibited by the paucity of global, long-term measurements of the chemical composition of fine particulate matter. We inferred PM2.5 chemical composition at 0.1° × 0.1° spatial resolution for 2004-2008 by combini ... Full text Cite

Spatially-varying SAR models and Bayesian inference for high-resolution lattice data

Journal Article Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics · 2014 Full text Cite

Long-term trends and interannual variability of forest, savanna and agricultural fires in South America

Journal Article Carbon Management · December 1, 2013 Background: Landscape fires in South America have considerable impacts on ecosystems, air quality and the climate system. We examined long-term trends and interannual variability of forest, savanna and agricultural fires for the continent during 2001-2012 ... Full text Cite

Iconic CO2 time series at risk.

Journal Article Science (New York, N.Y.) · August 2012 Full text Cite

Daily and 3-hourly variability in global fire emissions and consequences for atmospheric model predictions of carbon monoxide

Journal Article Journal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres · December 27, 2011 Attribution of the causes of atmospheric trace gas and aerosol variability often requires the use of high resolution time series of anthropogenic and natural emissions inventories. Here we developed an approach for representing synoptic-and diurnal-scale t ... Full text Cite

Forecasting fire season severity in South America using sea surface temperature anomalies.

Journal Article Science (New York, N.Y.) · November 2011 Fires in South America cause forest degradation and contribute to carbon emissions associated with land use change. We investigated the relationship between year-to-year changes in fire activity in South America and sea surface temperatures. We found that ... Full text Cite

Bayesian statistical modeling of spatially correlated error structure in atmospheric tracer inverse analysis

Journal Article Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics · July 15, 2011 We present and discuss the use of Bayesian modeling and computational methods for atmospheric chemistry inverse analyses that incorporate evaluation of spatial structure in model-data residuals. Motivated by problems of refining bottom-up estimates of sour ... Full text Cite

Nitrogen deposition in tropical forests from savanna and deforestation fires

Journal Article Global Change Biology · July 1, 2010 We used satellite-derived estimates of global fire emissions and a chemical transport model to estimate atmospheric nitrogen (N) fluxes from savanna and deforestation fires in tropical ecosystems. N emissions and reactive N deposition led to a net transpor ... Full text Cite

Assessing variability and long-term trends in burned area by merging multiple satellite fire products

Journal Article Biogeosciences · January 1, 2010 Long term, high quality estimates of burned area are needed for improving both prognostic and diagnostic fire emissions models and for assessing feedbacks between fire and the climate system. We developed global, monthly burned area estimates aggregated to ... Full text Open Access Cite

Global fire emissions and the contribution of deforestation, savanna, forest, agricultural, and peat fires (1997-2009)

Journal Article Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics · January 1, 2010 New burned area datasets and top-down constraints from atmospheric concentration measurements of pyrogenic gases have decreased the large uncertainty in fire emissions estimates. However, significant gaps remain in our understanding of the contribution of ... Full text Open Access Cite

Correction

Journal Article Nature Geoscience · December 2009 Full text Cite

CO2 emissions from forest loss

Journal Article Nature Geoscience · November 1, 2009 Full text Cite

Estimates of fire emissions from an active deforestation region in the southern Amazon based on satellite data and biogeochemical modelling

Journal Article Biogeosciences · January 1, 2009 Tropical deforestation contributes to the build-up of atmospheric carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Within the deforestation process, fire is frequently used to eliminate biomass in preparation for agricultural use. Quantifying these deforestation-induced ... Full text Cite

Climate regulation of fire emissions and deforestation in equatorial Asia.

Journal Article Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America · December 2008 Drainage of peatlands and deforestation have led to large-scale fires in equatorial Asia, affecting regional air quality and global concentrations of greenhouse gases. Here we used several sources of satellite data with biogeochemical and atmospheric model ... Full text Cite

Fire-related carbon emissions from land use transitions in southern Amazonia

Journal Article Geophysical Research Letters · November 28, 2008 Various land-use transitions in the tropics contribute to atmospheric carbon emissions, including forest conversion for small-scale farming, cattle ranching, and production of commodities such as soya and palm oil. These transitions involve fire as an effe ... Full text Cite

Contribution of ocean, fossil fuel, land biosphere, and biomass burning carbon fluxes to seasonal and interannual variability in atmospheric CO2

Journal Article Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences · March 28, 2008 Seasonal and interannual variability in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations was simulated using fluxes from fossil fuel, ocean and terrestrial biogeochemical models, and a tracer transport model with time-varying winds. The atmospheric CO2 vari ... Full text Cite

Has the performance of regional-scale photochemical modelling systems changed over the past decade?

Chapter · January 1, 2008 This study analyzes summertime ozone concentrations that have been simulated by various regional-scale photochemical modelling systems over the Eastern U.S. as part of more than ten independent studies. Results indicate that there has been a reduction of r ... Full text Cite

Sensitivity of global CO simulations to uncertainties in biomass burning sources

Journal Article Journal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres · December 16, 2007 One of the largest uncertainties for the modeling of tropospheric carbon monoxide (CO) concentration is the timing, location, and magnitude of biomass burning emissions. We investigate the sensitivity of simulated CO in the Unified Chemistry Transport Mode ... Full text Cite

Mortality from ship emissions: a global assessment.

Journal Article Environmental science & technology · December 2007 Epidemiological studies consistently link ambient concentrations of particulate matter (PM) to negative health impacts, including asthma, heart attacks, hospital admissions, and premature mortality. We model ambient PM concentrations from oceangoing ships ... Full text Cite

Time-dependent inversion estimates of global biomass-burning CO emissions using Measurement of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) measurements

Journal Article Journal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres · May 16, 2006 We present an inverse-modeling analysis of CO emissions using column CO retrievals from the Measurement of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) instrument and a global chemical transport model (GEOS-CHEM). We first focus on the information content of MOPI ... Full text Cite

Global estimation of burned area using MODIS active fire observations

Journal Article Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics · January 1, 2006 We present a method for estimating monthly burned area globally at 1° spatial resolution using Terra MODIS data and ancillary vegetation cover information. Using regression trees constructed for 14 different global regions, MODIS active fire observations w ... Full text Cite

Interannual variability in global biomass burning emissions from 1997 to 2004

Journal Article Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics · January 1, 2006 Biomass burning represents an important source of atmospheric aerosols and greenhouse gases, yet little is known about its interannual variability or the underlying mechanisms regulating this variability at continental to global scales. Here we investigate ... Full text Cite

Fire emissions from C3 and C4 vegetation and their influence on interannual variability of atmospheric CO2 and δ13CO2

Journal Article Global Biogeochemical Cycles · June 1, 2005 Measurements of atmospheric trace gases provide evidence that fire emissions increased during the 1997/1998 El Niño event and these emissions contributed substantially to global CO2, CO, CH4, and δ13CO2 anomalies. Interpretation and effective use of these ... Full text Cite

Top-down estimates of global CO sources using MOPITT measurements

Journal Article Geophysical Research Letters · January 16, 2004 We present a synthesis inversion of CO emissions from various geographical regions and for various source categories for the year 2000 using CO retrievals from the MOPITT (Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere) instrument. We find a large discrepanc ... Full text Cite

Continental-scale partitioning of fire emissions during the 1997 to 2001 El Niño/La Niña period.

Journal Article Science (New York, N.Y.) · January 2004 During the 1997 to 1998 El Niño, drought conditions triggered widespread increases in fire activity, releasing CH4 and CO2 to the atmosphere. We evaluated the contribution of fires from different continents to variability in these greenhouse gases from 199 ... Full text Cite

Moment-based simulation of microphysical properties of sulfate aerosols in the eastern United States: Model description, evaluation, and regional analysis

Journal Article Journal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres · June 27, 2003 A six-moment microphysics module for sulfate aerosols based on the quadrature method of moments has been incorporated in a host 3-D regional model, the Multiscale Air Quality Simulation Platform. Model performance was examined and evaluated by comparison w ... Full text Cite

Top-down estimate of a large source of atmospheric carbon monoxide associated with fuel combustion in Asia

Journal Article Geophysical Research Letters · October 1, 2002 Deriving robust regional estimates of the sources of chemically and radiatively important gases and aerosols to the atmosphere is challenging. Here, we focus on carbon monoxide. Using an inverse modeling methodology, we find that the source of carbon monox ... Cite

Top-down estimate of a large source of atmospheric carbon monoxide associated with fuel combustion in Asia

Journal Article Geophysical Research Letters · October 1, 2002 Deriving robust regional estimates of the sources of chemically and radiatively important gases and aerosols to the atmosphere is challenging. Here, we focus on carbon monoxide. Using an inverse modeling methodology, we find that the source of carbon monox ... Full text Cite

A general circulation model study of the global carbonaceous aerosol distribution

Journal Article J. Geophys. Res. (USA) · 2002 Atmospheric distributions of carbonaceous aerosols are simulated using the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory SKYHI general circulation model (GCM) (latitude-longitude resolution of ~3° × 3.6°). A number of systematic analyses are conducte ... Cite

Retrieval of aerosol properties from moments of the particle size distribution for kernels involving the step function: Cloud droplet activation

Journal Article Journal of Aerosol Science · 2002 Aerosol properties such as the number of particles that activate to form cloud drops and the mass contained within specified size ranges (as in the PM 2.5 and PM 10 regulatory standards) require integration over only part of the full size range of the part ... Full text Link to item Cite

A general circulation model study of the global carbonaceous aerosol distribution

Journal Article Journal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres · January 1, 2002 Atmospheric distributions of carbonaceous aerosols are simulated using the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory SKYHI general circulation model (GCM) (latitude-longitude resolution of ∼3° × 3.6°). A number of systematic analyses are conducted to investiga ... Full text Cite

A general circulation model study of the global carbonaceous aerosol distribution

Journal Article Journal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres · January 1, 2002 Atmospheric distributions of carbonaceous aerosols are simulated using the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory SKYHI general circulation model (GCM) (latitude-longitude resolution of ̃3° × 3.6°). A number of systematic analyses are conducted to investigat ... Cite

Evaluating the performance of regional-scale photochemical modeling systems: Part II - Ozone predictions

Journal Article Atmospheric Environment · July 12, 2001 In this paper, the concept of scale analysis is applied to evaluate ozone predictions from two regional-scale air quality models. To this end, seasonal time series of observations and predictions from the RAMS3b/UAM-V and MM5/MAQSIP (SMRAQ) modeling system ... Full text Cite

Evaluating the performance of regional-scale photochemical modeling systems: Part I - Meteorological predictions

Journal Article Atmospheric Environment · July 12, 2001 In this study, the concept of scale analysis is applied to evaluate two state-of-science meteorological models, namely MM5 and RAMS3b, currently being used to drive regional-scale air quality models. To this end, seasonal time series of observations and pr ... Full text Cite

Impact of ship emissions on marine boundary layer NOx and SO2 distributions over the Pacific Basin

Journal Article Geophysical Research Letters · January 15, 2001 The impact of ship emissions on marine boundary layer (MBL) NOx and SO2 levels over the Pacific Ocean has been explored by comparing predictions (with and without ships) from a global chemical transport model (GCTM) against compiled airborne observations o ... Full text Cite

Analysis of regional budgets of sulfur species modeled for the COSAM exercise

Journal Article Tellus B, Chem. Phys. Meteorol. (Sweden) · 2001 The COSAM intercomparison exercise (comparison of large-scale sulfur models) was organized to compare and evaluate the performance of global sulfur cycle models. Eleven models participated, and from these models the simulated surface concentrations, vertic ... Cite

A comparison of large-scale atmospheric sulphate aerosol models (COSAM): overview and highlights

Journal Article Tellus B, Chem. Phys. Meteorol. (Sweden) · 2001 The comparison of large-scale sulphate aerosol models study (COSAM) compared the performance of atmospheric models with each other and observations. It involved: (i) design of a standard model experiment for the world wide web, (ii) 10 model simulations of ... Cite

A comparison of scavenging and deposition processes in global models: Results from the WCRP Cambridge Workshop of 1995

Journal Article Tellus B, Chem. Phys. Meteorol. (Sweden) · 2001 The authors report on results from a World Climate Research Program workshop on representations of scavenging and deposition processes in global transport models of the atmosphere. 15 models were evaluated by comparing simulations of radon, lead, sulfur di ... Cite

A comparison of large-scale atmospheric sulphate aerosol models (COSAM): Overview and highlights

Journal Article Tellus, Series B: Chemical and Physical Meteorology · January 1, 2001 The comparison of large-scale sulphate aerosol models study (COSAM) compared the performance of atmospheric models with each other and observations. It involved: (i) design of a standard model experiment for the world wide web, (ii) 10 model simulations of ... Full text Cite

Analysis of regional budgets of sulfur species modeled for the COSAM exercise

Journal Article Tellus, Series B: Chemical and Physical Meteorology · January 1, 2001 The COSAM intercomparison exercise (comparison of large-scale sulfur models) was organized to compare and evaluate the performance of global sulfur cycle models. Eleven models participated, and from these models the simulated surface concentrations, vertic ... Full text Cite

Do emissions from ships have a significant impact on concentrations of nitrogen oxides in the marine boundary layer?

Journal Article Geophysical Research Letters · August 1, 2000 The potential impact of ship emissions on concentrations of nitrogen oxides and reactive nitrogen compounds in the marine boundary layer is assessed using a global chemical transport model. The model predicts significant enhancements of these compounds ove ... Full text Cite

Global distribution of carbon monoxide

Journal Article Journal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres · May 27, 2000 This study explores the evolution and distribution of carbon monoxide (CO) using the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory three-dimensional global chemical transport model (GFDL GCTM). The work aims t ... Full text Cite

Seasonal modeling of regional ozone pollution in the eastern United States

Journal Article Geophysical Research Letters · May 1, 2000 In this study, we report on the results from a comprehensive model simulation of regional ozone (O3) throughout a season in the eastern United States. The model is shown to perform better in terms of simulating seasonal, rather than episodic, ch ... Full text Cite

Emission inventory development and processing for the Seasonal Model for Regional Air Quality (SMRAQ) project

Journal Article J. Geophys. Res. (USA) · 2000 This paper describes the experiences and insights gained from inventory preparation and emissions processing for the Seasonal Model for Regional Air Quality (SMRAQ) project. The emission inventory was derived from the 1990 and 1995 Ozone Transport Assessme ... Full text Link to item Cite

A study of DMS oxidation in the tropics: Comparison of christmas island field observation of DMS, SO2, and DMSO with model simulations

Journal Article Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry · January 1, 2000 This study reports comparisons between model simulations, based on current sulfur mechanisms, with the DMS, SO2 and DMSO observational data reported by Bandy et al. in their 1994 Christmas Island field study. For both DMS and SO2, the model results were fo ... Full text Cite

A comparison of scavenging and deposition processes in global models: Results from the WCRP Cambridge workshop of 1995

Journal Article Tellus, Series B: Chemical and Physical Meteorology · January 1, 2000 We report on results from a World Climate Research Program workshop on representations of scavenging and deposition processes in global transport models of the atmosphere. 15 models were evaluated by comparing simulations of radon, lead, sulfur dioxide, an ... Full text Cite

Inverse methods in global biogeochemical cycles - Introduction and overview

Conference INVERSE METHODS IN GLOBAL BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES · 2000 Cite

Simulated tropospheric NOx: Its evaluation, global distribution and individual source contributions

Journal Article Journal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres · November 20, 1999 Using the 11-level Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory global chemical transport model, we simulate global tropospheric fields of NOx, peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN), HNO3, and NOy, as well as the deposition of nitrate, extensively evaluate them against avai ... Full text Cite

Effects of ship emissions on sulphur cycling and radiative climate forcing over the ocean

Journal Article Nature · August 19, 1999 The atmosphere overlying the ocean is very sensitive - physically, chemically and climatically - to air pollution. Given that clouds over the ocean are of great climatic significance, and that sulphate aerosols seem to be an important control on marine clo ... Full text Cite

A mass-balance/photochemical assessment of DMS sea-to-air flux as inferred from NASA GTE PEM-West a and B observations

Journal Article Journal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres · March 20, 1999 This study reports dimethyl sulfide (DMS) sea-to-air fluxes derived from a mass-balance/photochemical-modeling approach. The region investigated was the western North Pacific covering the latitude range of 0°-30°N. Two NASA airborne databases were used in ... Full text Cite

Is aerosol production within the remote marine boundary layer sufficient to maintain observed concentrations?

Journal Article Journal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres · February 20, 1999 To evaluate the impact of aerosols on climate we must consider the aerosol dynamics of the remote marine atmosphere. Marine aerosols are subject to losses due to precipitation, dry deposition, and coagulation; yet, observed remote marine aerosol concentrat ... Full text Cite

Introduction and overview

Book · January 1, 1999 Full text Cite

Preface

Book · January 1, 1999 Full text Cite

Development and implementation of a seasonal model for regional air quality

Journal Article Proceedings of the Air & Waste Management Association's Annual Meeting & Exhibition · December 1, 1998 As part of its five Cooperative Agreements with the U.S. EPA, the Southern Oxidant Study (SOS) Science Team has promoted the development and application of a unique regional air quality modeling system, referenced as Seasonal Model for Regional Air Quality ... Cite

Relationships between regional ozone pollution and emissions of nitrogen oxides in the eastern United States

Journal Article Journal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres · September 20, 1998 This study examines the relationships between regional ozone (O3) pollution and emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) in the eastern United States during summer. Using measurements from rural sites during the summer of 1995, three 4-day time periods are ident ... Full text Cite

DMS oxidation in the Antarctic marine boundary layer: Comparison of model simulations and held observations of DMS, DMSO, DMSO2, H2SO4(g), MSA(g), and MSA(p)

Journal Article Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres · January 20, 1998 A sulfur field study (SCATE) at Palmer Station Antarctica (January 18 to February 25) has revealed several major new findings concerning (dimethyl sulfide) DMS oxidation chemistry and the cycling of sulfur within the Antarctic environment. Signific ... Full text Cite

Gas-to-particle conversion of tropospheric sulfur as estimated from observations in the western North Pacific during PEM-West B

Journal Article Journal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres · December 20, 1997 Aircraft observations during the Pacific Exploratory Mission in the western Pacific Ocean, phase B (PEM-West B), taken in February-March 1994, have been used to constrain a numerical model that calculates local concentrations of gaseous H2S04, rates of hom ... Full text Cite

Sensitivity of ozone predictions to biogenic hydrocarbon chemistry and emissions in air quality models

Journal Article Proceedings of the Air & Waste Management Association's Annual Meeting & Exhibition · December 1, 1997 The sensitivity of ozone predictions to the changes in biogenic hydrocarbon chemistry and emissions was investigated. A Lagrangian box model, the OZIPR/EKMA model, was used to examine the differences of O3 predicted using two sets of chemical mechanisms, t ... Cite

Results from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climatic Change Photochemical Model Intercomparison (PhotoComp)

Journal Article Journal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres · March 20, 1997 Results from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climatic Change (IPCC) tropospheric photochemical model intercomparison (PhotoComp) are presented with a brief discussion of the factors that may contribute to differences in the modeled behaviors of HOx cycling ... Full text Cite

Evaluation and intercomparison of global atmospheric transport models using 222Rn and other short-lived tracers

Journal Article Journal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres · March 20, 1997 Simulations of 222Rn and other short-lived tracers are used to evaluate and intercompare the representations of convective and synoptic processes in 20 global atmospheric transport models. Results show that most established three-dimensional models simulat ... Full text Cite

A three-dimensional global model investigation of seasonal variations in the atmospheric burden of anthropogenic sulfate aerosols

Journal Article Journal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres · February 20, 1997 A global three-dimensional chemical transport model is used to investigate seasonal variations of anthropogenic sulfur in the troposphere. Particular emphasis is placed on detailed comparisons of the modeled surface sulfur dioxide (SQ2) and sulfate (SO4) c ... Full text Cite

Impact of inert organic nitrate formation on ground-level ozone in a regional air quality model using the carbon bond mechanism 4

Journal Article Geophysical Research Letters · January 1, 1997 A regional air quality model is used to assess the impact of inert organic nitrate formation on ground-level ozone in the eastern United States during summer. The chemical mechanism used is the Carbon Bond Mechanism 4 (CBM4), which is widely used by regula ... Full text Cite

The global impact of human activity on tropospheric ozone

Journal Article Geophysical Research Letters · January 1, 1997 Within a conceptual framework of stratospheric injection, CO-CH4 background tropospheric chemistry, parameterized pollution production in the continental boundary layer and surface deposition, we use an 11 level GCTM to simulate global distributions of pre ... Full text Cite

Three-dimensional view of the large-scale tropospheric ozone distribution over the North Atlantic Ocean during summer

Journal Article Journal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres · December 20, 1996 A global chemical transport model is used to study the three-dimensional structure of the tropospheric ozone (O3) distribution over the North Atlantic Ocean during summer. A simplified representation of summertime O3 photochemistry appropriate for northern ... Full text Cite

Transport-induced interannual variability of carbon monoxide determined using a chemistry and transport model

Journal Article Journal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres · December 20, 1996 Transport-induced interannual variability of carbon monoxide (CO) is studied during 1989-1993 using the Goddard chemistry and transport model (GCTM) driven by assimilated data. Seasonal changes in the latitudinal distribution of CO near the surface and at ... Full text Cite

A global three-dimensional time-dependent lightning source of tropospheric NOx

Journal Article Journal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres · October 20, 1996 The spatial and temporal distribution for a global three-dimensional, time-dependent lightning source of NOx is constructed from a general circulation model's (GCM) deep moist convection statistics [Manabe et al., 1974; Manabe and Holloway, 1975], observat ... Full text Cite

Simulated global tropospheric PAN: Its transport and impact on NOx

Journal Article Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres · May 20, 1996 Using the 11‐level Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) global chemical transport model (GCTM) with all known sources of tropospheric NOx, we simulate the global tropospheric distribution of p ... Full text Cite

The increase of pollutants (nitrogen oxides and ozone) in the summertime Midwest

Journal Article Preparing for global change: a midwestern perspective. Proc. symposium, Iowa City, 1994 · January 1, 1995 We use the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) Global Chemical Transport Model, with the six known sources for tropospheric NOx and off-line calculations of daytime gas-phase nitrogen photochemistry and night-time heterogeneous chemistry, to simul ... Cite

Regional ozone pollution and global change

Conference SIXTH SYMPOSIUM ON GLOBAL CHANGE STUDIES · 1995 Cite

Growth of continental-scale metro-agro-plexes, regional ozone pollution, and world food production.

Journal Article Science (New York, N.Y.) · April 1994 Three regions of the northern mid-latitudes, the continental-scale metro-agro-plexes, presently dominate global industrial and agricultural productivity. Although these regions cover only 23 percent of the Earth's continents, they account for most of the w ... Full text Cite

NOY from sub‐sonic aircraft emissions: A Global three‐dimensional model study

Journal Article Geophysical Research Letters · January 1, 1993 The 11‐level Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory global chemical transport model (GCTM), which explicitly treats NOx, HNO3, PAN as transported species, has been used to assess the impact of sub‐sonic aircraft emissions on the distribution of reactive nit ... Full text Cite

Global NOx, HNO3, PAN and NOy distributions from fossil fuel combustion emissions: a model study

Journal Article Journal of Geophysical Research · January 1, 1993 The 11-level GFDL global chemical transport model has been used to assess the impact of fossil fuel combustion emissions on the distribution of reactive nitrogen compounds (NOy) in the troposphere. We conclude that 1) the model reproduces the observed spat ... Full text Cite

Sulfur and nitrogen levels in the North Atlantic Ocean's atmosphere: A synthesis of field and modeling results

Journal Article Global Biogeochemical Cycles · January 1, 1992 In April 1990, forty‐two scientists from eight countries attended a workshop at the Bermuda Biological Station for Research to compare field measurements with model estimates of the distribution and cycling of sulfur and nitrogen species in the North Atlan ... Full text Cite

The relative impact of stratospheric photochemical production on tropospheric NOy levels: a model study

Journal Article Journal of Geophysical Research · January 1, 1991 We conclude that the stratospheric source is too small to account for background surface NOy concentrations observed in the remote (i.e., regions a few thousand kilometers from continental source regions) troposphere. Surface NOy mixing ratios seldom excee ... Full text Cite

The relative impact of stratospheric photochemical production on tropospheric NOy levels: a model study

Journal Article Journal of Geophysical Research · 1991 We conclude that the stratospheric source is too small to account for background surface NOy concentrations observed in the remote (i.e., regions a few thousand kilometers from continental source regions) troposphere. Surface NOy mixing ratios seldom excee ... Cite

On the numerical solution of a model air pollution problem with non-smooth initial data

Journal Article Communications in Applied Numerical Methods · January 1, 1990 Full text Cite

Numerical simulation of transport from a point source: error analysis

Journal Article Atmos. Environ. A, Gen. Top. (UK) · 1990 The techniques used to represent point sources in numerical air pollution models have received little attention. However, an inadequate representation of these sources can lead to significant loss of solution accuracy. Kasibhatla et al. (1988) performed a ... Cite

Numerical simulation of transport from a point source: error analysis

Journal Article Atmospheric Environment Part A, General Topics · January 1, 1990 The techniques used to represent point sources in numerical air pollution models have received little attention.However, an inadequate representation of these sources can lead to significant loss of solution accuracy. Kasibhatla et al. (1988, Atmospheric E ... Full text Cite

Numerical simulation of transport from an infinite line source: Error analysis

Journal Article Atmospheric Environment (1967) · January 1, 1988 State-of-the-art numerical techniques for solving partial differential equations utilize adaptive grid techniques. In these methods, the mesh is refined based on a posteriori error estimates. However, these techniques have not been used for air pollution s ... Full text Cite

An Eulerian transport/transformation/removal model for SO2 and sulfate-III. Comparison with the July 1974 sure database

Journal Article Atmospheric Environment (1967) · January 1, 1988 This is the third paper in a series describing an Eulerian transport/transformation/removal model (STEM-I). Simulation results for the period 4-9 July 1974 are compared with field data from the SURE experiment for the same period. Statistical analysis of t ... Full text Cite

Description and evaluation of a six-moment aerosol microphysical module for use in atmospheric chemical transport models

Journal Article J. Geophys. Res. (USA) Describes and evaluates a six-moment aerosol microphysical module, 6M, designed for implementation in atmospheric chemical transport models (CTMs). The module 6M is based upon the quadrature method of moments (QMOM) (McGraw, 1997) and the multiple isomomen ... Full text Link to item Cite