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Richard Frothingham

Associate Professor of Medicine
Medicine, Infectious Diseases
DUMC Box 102359, Infectious Disease, Durham, NC 27710
2424 Erwin Rd, Hock Plaza Room 9089, Durham, NC 27710

Selected Publications


Rhesus immune responses to SIV Gag expressed by recombinant BCG vectors are independent from pre-existing mycobacterial immunity.

Journal Article Vaccine · October 13, 2015 BACKGROUND: A recombinant Mycobacterium bovis BCG (rBCG) vector expressing HIV transgenes is an attractive candidate as a dual vaccine against HIV and TB. However, pre-existing immune responses to mycobacteria may influence immune responses to rBCG. We ana ... Full text Link to item Cite

Stable Expression of Lentiviral Antigens by Quality-Controlled Recombinant Mycobacterium bovis BCG Vectors.

Journal Article Clin Vaccine Immunol · July 2015 The well-established safety profile of the tuberculosis vaccine strain, Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG), makes it an attractive vehicle for heterologous expression of antigens from clinically relevant pathogens. However, successful genera ... Full text Link to item Cite

Recombinant Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin vectors prime for strong cellular responses to simian immunodeficiency virus gag in rhesus macaques.

Journal Article Clin Vaccine Immunol · October 2014 Live attenuated nonpathogenic Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) mediates long-lasting immune responses, has been safely administered as a tuberculosis vaccine to billions of humans, and is affordable to produce as a vaccine vector. These c ... Full text Link to item Cite

The human antibody response to the surface of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Journal Article PLoS ONE · June 11, 2014 Background: Vaccine-induced human antibodies to surface components of Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumonia are correlated with protection. Monoclonal antibodies to surface components of Mycobacterium tuberculosis are also protective in animal ... Full text Cite

Identification of early interactions between Francisella and the host.

Journal Article Infect Immun · June 2014 The adaptive immune response to Francisella tularensis is dependent on the route of inoculation. Intradermal inoculation with the F. tularensis live vaccine strain (LVS) results in a robust Th1 response in the lungs, whereas intranasal inoculation produces ... Full text Link to item Cite

Impact of surfactant protein D, interleukin-5, and eosinophilia on Cryptococcosis.

Journal Article Infect Immun · February 2014 Cryptococcus neoformans is an opportunistic fungal pathogen that initiates infection following inhalation. As a result, the pulmonary immune response provides a first line of defense against C. neoformans. Surfactant protein D (SP-D) is an important regula ... Full text Link to item Cite

Reduced virulence of an extensively drug-resistant outbreak strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in a murine model.

Journal Article PLoS One · 2014 Bacterial drug resistance is often associated with a fitness cost. Large outbreaks of multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) TB have been described that predominately affect persons with HIV infection. We obtained four closely-relat ... Full text Link to item Cite

The human antibody response to the surface of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

Journal Article PLoS One · 2014 BACKGROUND: Vaccine-induced human antibodies to surface components of Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumonia are correlated with protection. Monoclonal antibodies to surface components of Mycobacterium tuberculosis are also protective in animal ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Improving Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guèrin as a vaccine delivery vector for viral antigens by incorporation of glycolipid activators of NKT cells.

Journal Article PLoS One · 2014 Recombinant Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guèrin (rBCG) has been explored as a vector for vaccines against HIV because of its ability to induce long lasting humoral and cell mediated immune responses. To maximize the potential for rBCG vaccines to ... Full text Link to item Cite

Infection with Francisella tularensis LVS clpB leads to an altered yet protective immune response.

Journal Article Infect Immun · June 2013 Bacterial attenuation is typically thought of as reduced bacterial growth in the presence of constant immune pressure. Infection with Francisella tularensis elicits innate and adaptive immune responses. Several in vivo screens have identified F. tularensis ... Full text Link to item Cite

Development of an aerosol model of Cryptococcus reveals humidity as an important factor affecting the viability of Cryptococcus during aerosolization.

Journal Article PLoS One · 2013 Cryptococcus is an emerging global health threat that is annually responsible for over 1,000,000 infections and one third of all AIDS patient deaths. There is an ongoing outbreak of cryptococcosis in the western United States and Canada. Cryptococcosis is ... Full text Link to item Cite

Bioluminescence imaging to track bacterial dissemination of Yersinia pestis using different routes of infection in mice.

Journal Article BMC Microbiol · July 24, 2012 BACKGROUND: Plague is caused by Yersinia pestis, a bacterium that disseminates inside of the host at remarkably high rates. Plague bacilli disrupt normal immune responses in the host allowing for systematic spread that is fatal if left untreated. How Y. pe ... Full text Link to item Cite

Ultra-low dose of Mycobacterium tuberculosis aerosol creates partial infection in mice.

Journal Article Tuberculosis (Edinb) · March 2012 A murine low dose (LD) aerosol model is commonly used to test tuberculosis vaccines. Doses of 50-400 CFU (24h lung CFU) infect 100% of exposed mice. The LD model measures progression from infection to disease based on organ CFU at defined time points. To m ... Full text Link to item Cite

Sampling port for real-time analysis of bioaerosol in whole body exposure system for animal aerosol model development.

Journal Article J Pharmacol Toxicol Methods · 2011 INTRODUCTION: Multiple factors influence the viability of aerosolized bacteria. The delivery of aerosols is affected by chamber conditions (humidity, temperature, and pressure) and bioaerosol characteristics (particle number, particle size distribution, an ... Full text Link to item Cite

Validation of an Animal Isolation Imaging Chamber for Use in Animal Biosafety Level-3 Containment.

Journal Article Appl Biosaf · 2010 Live imaging of animals infected with pathogenic microbes poses a contamination risk to equipment, personnel and other animals. A Caliper animal isolation chamber designed for the IVIS(®) Spectrum imaging system was tested as a containment device for mice ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Efficacy and safety of live attenuated persistent and rapidly cleared Mycobacterium tuberculosis vaccine candidates in non-human primates.

Journal Article Vaccine · July 23, 2009 Tuberculosis (TB) remains a global health burden for which safe vaccines are needed. BCG has limitations as a TB vaccine so we have focused on live attenuated Mycobacterium tuberculosis mutants as vaccine candidates. Prior to human studies, however, it is ... Full text Link to item Cite

Association between 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer sequence groups of Mycobacterium avium complex and pulmonary disease.

Journal Article J Clin Microbiol · August 2008 Organisms within the Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) may have differential virulence. We compared 33 subjects with MAC pulmonary disease to 75 subjects with a single positive culture without disease. M. avium isolates were significantly more likely to be ... Full text Link to item Cite

The evolution of drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis: from a mono-rifampin-resistant cluster into increasingly multidrug-resistant variants in an HIV-seropositive population.

Journal Article J Infect Dis · July 1, 2008 We describe the genotypic and phenotypic characteristics of a mono-rifampin-resistant (RIF(R)) Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain cluster (designated AU-RIF(R)) and the acquisition of additional drug resistance. Drug susceptibility, sequences of regions tha ... Full text Link to item Cite

Study of the role of CCR5 in a mouse model of intranasal challenge with Yersinia pestis.

Journal Article Microbes Infect · July 2007 CCR5 is a chemokine receptor used by HIV-1 to enter cells and has recently been found to act as a pathogen associated molecule pattern receptor. Current positive selection for the high frequency of a CCR5-Delta32 allele in humans has been attributed to res ... Full text Link to item Cite

Rhesus immune responses to SIV Gag expressed by recombinant BCG vectors are independent from pre-existing mycobacterial immunity.

Journal Article Vaccine · October 13, 2015 BACKGROUND: A recombinant Mycobacterium bovis BCG (rBCG) vector expressing HIV transgenes is an attractive candidate as a dual vaccine against HIV and TB. However, pre-existing immune responses to mycobacteria may influence immune responses to rBCG. We ana ... Full text Link to item Cite

Stable Expression of Lentiviral Antigens by Quality-Controlled Recombinant Mycobacterium bovis BCG Vectors.

Journal Article Clin Vaccine Immunol · July 2015 The well-established safety profile of the tuberculosis vaccine strain, Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG), makes it an attractive vehicle for heterologous expression of antigens from clinically relevant pathogens. However, successful genera ... Full text Link to item Cite

Recombinant Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin vectors prime for strong cellular responses to simian immunodeficiency virus gag in rhesus macaques.

Journal Article Clin Vaccine Immunol · October 2014 Live attenuated nonpathogenic Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) mediates long-lasting immune responses, has been safely administered as a tuberculosis vaccine to billions of humans, and is affordable to produce as a vaccine vector. These c ... Full text Link to item Cite

The human antibody response to the surface of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Journal Article PLoS ONE · June 11, 2014 Background: Vaccine-induced human antibodies to surface components of Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumonia are correlated with protection. Monoclonal antibodies to surface components of Mycobacterium tuberculosis are also protective in animal ... Full text Cite

Identification of early interactions between Francisella and the host.

Journal Article Infect Immun · June 2014 The adaptive immune response to Francisella tularensis is dependent on the route of inoculation. Intradermal inoculation with the F. tularensis live vaccine strain (LVS) results in a robust Th1 response in the lungs, whereas intranasal inoculation produces ... Full text Link to item Cite

Impact of surfactant protein D, interleukin-5, and eosinophilia on Cryptococcosis.

Journal Article Infect Immun · February 2014 Cryptococcus neoformans is an opportunistic fungal pathogen that initiates infection following inhalation. As a result, the pulmonary immune response provides a first line of defense against C. neoformans. Surfactant protein D (SP-D) is an important regula ... Full text Link to item Cite

Reduced virulence of an extensively drug-resistant outbreak strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in a murine model.

Journal Article PLoS One · 2014 Bacterial drug resistance is often associated with a fitness cost. Large outbreaks of multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) TB have been described that predominately affect persons with HIV infection. We obtained four closely-relat ... Full text Link to item Cite

The human antibody response to the surface of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

Journal Article PLoS One · 2014 BACKGROUND: Vaccine-induced human antibodies to surface components of Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumonia are correlated with protection. Monoclonal antibodies to surface components of Mycobacterium tuberculosis are also protective in animal ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Improving Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guèrin as a vaccine delivery vector for viral antigens by incorporation of glycolipid activators of NKT cells.

Journal Article PLoS One · 2014 Recombinant Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guèrin (rBCG) has been explored as a vector for vaccines against HIV because of its ability to induce long lasting humoral and cell mediated immune responses. To maximize the potential for rBCG vaccines to ... Full text Link to item Cite

Infection with Francisella tularensis LVS clpB leads to an altered yet protective immune response.

Journal Article Infect Immun · June 2013 Bacterial attenuation is typically thought of as reduced bacterial growth in the presence of constant immune pressure. Infection with Francisella tularensis elicits innate and adaptive immune responses. Several in vivo screens have identified F. tularensis ... Full text Link to item Cite

Development of an aerosol model of Cryptococcus reveals humidity as an important factor affecting the viability of Cryptococcus during aerosolization.

Journal Article PLoS One · 2013 Cryptococcus is an emerging global health threat that is annually responsible for over 1,000,000 infections and one third of all AIDS patient deaths. There is an ongoing outbreak of cryptococcosis in the western United States and Canada. Cryptococcosis is ... Full text Link to item Cite

Bioluminescence imaging to track bacterial dissemination of Yersinia pestis using different routes of infection in mice.

Journal Article BMC Microbiol · July 24, 2012 BACKGROUND: Plague is caused by Yersinia pestis, a bacterium that disseminates inside of the host at remarkably high rates. Plague bacilli disrupt normal immune responses in the host allowing for systematic spread that is fatal if left untreated. How Y. pe ... Full text Link to item Cite

Ultra-low dose of Mycobacterium tuberculosis aerosol creates partial infection in mice.

Journal Article Tuberculosis (Edinb) · March 2012 A murine low dose (LD) aerosol model is commonly used to test tuberculosis vaccines. Doses of 50-400 CFU (24h lung CFU) infect 100% of exposed mice. The LD model measures progression from infection to disease based on organ CFU at defined time points. To m ... Full text Link to item Cite

Sampling port for real-time analysis of bioaerosol in whole body exposure system for animal aerosol model development.

Journal Article J Pharmacol Toxicol Methods · 2011 INTRODUCTION: Multiple factors influence the viability of aerosolized bacteria. The delivery of aerosols is affected by chamber conditions (humidity, temperature, and pressure) and bioaerosol characteristics (particle number, particle size distribution, an ... Full text Link to item Cite

Validation of an Animal Isolation Imaging Chamber for Use in Animal Biosafety Level-3 Containment.

Journal Article Appl Biosaf · 2010 Live imaging of animals infected with pathogenic microbes poses a contamination risk to equipment, personnel and other animals. A Caliper animal isolation chamber designed for the IVIS(®) Spectrum imaging system was tested as a containment device for mice ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Efficacy and safety of live attenuated persistent and rapidly cleared Mycobacterium tuberculosis vaccine candidates in non-human primates.

Journal Article Vaccine · July 23, 2009 Tuberculosis (TB) remains a global health burden for which safe vaccines are needed. BCG has limitations as a TB vaccine so we have focused on live attenuated Mycobacterium tuberculosis mutants as vaccine candidates. Prior to human studies, however, it is ... Full text Link to item Cite

Association between 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer sequence groups of Mycobacterium avium complex and pulmonary disease.

Journal Article J Clin Microbiol · August 2008 Organisms within the Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) may have differential virulence. We compared 33 subjects with MAC pulmonary disease to 75 subjects with a single positive culture without disease. M. avium isolates were significantly more likely to be ... Full text Link to item Cite

The evolution of drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis: from a mono-rifampin-resistant cluster into increasingly multidrug-resistant variants in an HIV-seropositive population.

Journal Article J Infect Dis · July 1, 2008 We describe the genotypic and phenotypic characteristics of a mono-rifampin-resistant (RIF(R)) Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain cluster (designated AU-RIF(R)) and the acquisition of additional drug resistance. Drug susceptibility, sequences of regions tha ... Full text Link to item Cite

Study of the role of CCR5 in a mouse model of intranasal challenge with Yersinia pestis.

Journal Article Microbes Infect · July 2007 CCR5 is a chemokine receptor used by HIV-1 to enter cells and has recently been found to act as a pathogen associated molecule pattern receptor. Current positive selection for the high frequency of a CCR5-Delta32 allele in humans has been attributed to res ... Full text Link to item Cite

Recombinant Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guerin elicits human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope-specific T lymphocytes at mucosal sites.

Journal Article Clin Vaccine Immunol · July 2007 A successful vaccine vector for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) should induce anti-HIV-1 T-cell immune responses at mucosal sites. We have constructed recombinant Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (rBCG) expressing an HIV-1 group M c ... Full text Link to item Cite

Generation of mucosal anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 T-cell responses by recombinant Mycobacterium smegmatis.

Journal Article Clin Vaccine Immunol · November 2006 A successful vaccine vector for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) should induce anti-HIV-1 immune responses at mucosal sites. We have generated recombinant Mycobacterium smegmatis vectors that express the HIV-1 group M consensus envelope protein ... Full text Link to item Cite

Current issues in global tuberculosis control.

Journal Article Int J Infect Dis · November 2005 Despite attempts to standardize tuberculosis (TB) control strategies, there remains wide variation in the selection and implementation of control strategies within and among nations. Some of this variation is appropriate; based on wide variations in the av ... Full text Link to item Cite

Glucose homeostasis abnormalities associated with use of gatifloxacin.

Journal Article Clin Infect Dis · November 1, 2005 BACKGROUND: More than 20 published case reports have described an association between the use of gatifloxacin and hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia. We compare the rates of glucose homeostasis abnormality (GHA) adverse event reports (AERs) associated with the ... Full text Link to item Cite

Yersinia pestis kills Caenorhabditis elegans by a biofilm-independent process that involves novel virulence factors.

Journal Article EMBO Rep · October 2005 It is known that Yersinia pestis kills Caenorhabditis elegans by a biofilm-dependent mechanism that is similar to the mechanism used by the pathogen to block food intake in the flea vector. Using Y. pestis KIM 5, which lacks the genes that are required for ... Full text Link to item Cite

Chlamydia pneumoniae and acute coronary syndrome.

Journal Article N Engl J Med · August 4, 2005 Full text Link to item Cite

Chlamydia pneumoniae and acute coronary syndrome

Journal Article NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE · August 4, 2005 Link to item Cite

Quinolone Safety and Efficacy

Journal Article Emerging Infectious Diseases · June 2005 Full text Cite

Nasal peptide vaccination elicits CD8 responses and reduces viral burden after challenge with virulent murine cytomegalovirus.

Journal Article Microbiol Immunol · 2005 Infection of BALB/c mice with murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) leads to CD8 cell responses to an immunodominant epitope YPHFMPTNL. We presented this epitope as a nasal peptide vaccine in combination with cholera toxin adjuvant, and evaluated immune responses ... Full text Link to item Cite

Quinolone safety and efficacy [5] (multiple letters)

Journal Article Emerging Infectious Diseases · January 1, 2005 Full text Cite

[title field missing]

Journal Article Clin. Infect. Dis. · 2005 Full text Cite

Non-O1 Vibrio cholerae septicemia: case report, discussion of literature, and relevance to bioterrorism.

Journal Article Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis · August 2004 Non-O1 Vibrio cholerae (NOVC) is a rare cause of septicemia in the United States. We report a case of NOVC septicemia and discuss the literature pertaining to this organism. NOVC takes on new significance given that it can be confused with toxigenic V. cho ... Full text Link to item Cite

"Me-too" products--friend or foe?

Journal Article N Engl J Med · May 13, 2004 Full text Link to item Cite

"Me-too" products--friend or foe?

Journal Article The New England journal of medicine · May 13, 2004 Cite

"Me-too" products--friend or foe?

Journal Article The New England journal of medicine · January 1, 2004 Cite

Racial differences in hepatitis B and hepatitis C and associated risk behaviors in veterans with severe mental illness.

Journal Article J Natl Med Assoc · January 2004 Racial differences in the seroprevalence of and risks for hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C (HCV) were examined in military veterans with severe mental illnesses (SMI). Participants (376; 155 Caucasian, 221 African American) were inpatients at a Veterans A ... Link to item Cite

In vivo protein expression and immune responses generated by DNA vaccines expressing mycobacterial antigens fused with a reporter protein.

Journal Article Vaccine · August 19, 2002 We cloned six mycobacterial antigens into a mammalian expression vector as fusion proteins with the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). Plasmid DNA was injected intramuscularly, and the injection sites were examined 1 week later. Expression of each ... Full text Link to item Cite

Torsades de pointes associated with fluoroquinolones.

Journal Article Pharmacotherapy · May 2002 Recent attention has been called to the interpretation of studies of antiinfective agents demonstrating effects on the QTc interval. It seems that the effects of many of these agents on the QTc interval are small, but in some patient populations, these dru ... Full text Link to item Cite

Identification and evolution of an IS6110 low-copy-number Mycobacterium tuberculosis cluster.

Journal Article J Infect Dis · March 1, 2002 A cohort of 56 patients infected with related strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the S75 group, was identified in a New Jersey population-based study of all isolates with a low number of copies of the insertion element IS6110. Genotyping was combined w ... Full text Link to item Cite

Rates of torsades de pointes associated with ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, levofloxacin, gatifloxacin, and moxifloxacin.

Journal Article Pharmacotherapy · December 2001 STUDY OBJECTIVE: To compare the rates of torsades de pointes associated with ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, levofloxacin, gatifloxacin, and moxifloxacin administration. DESIGN: Retrospective database analysis. INTERVENTION: Evaluation of reported rates of torsa ... Full text Link to item Cite

Recent victimization in women and men with severe mental illness: prevalence and correlates.

Journal Article J Trauma Stress · October 2001 The problem of violence against individuals with severe mental illness (SMI) has received relatively, little notice, despite several studies suggesting an exceptionally high prevalence of victimization in this population. This paper describes the results o ... Full text Link to item Cite

Quinolones for community-acquired pneumonia.

Journal Article Arch Intern Med · July 9, 2001 Full text Link to item Cite

Molecular identification of streptomycin monoresistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis related to multidrug-resistant W strain.

Journal Article Emerg Infect Dis · 2001 A distinct branch of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis W phylogenetic lineage (W14 group) has been identified and characterized by various genotyping techniques. The W14 group comprises three strain variants: W14, W23, and W26, which accounted for 26 clinical ... Full text Link to item Cite

Rapid identification of laboratory contamination with Mycobacterium tuberculosis using variable number tandem repeat analysis.

Journal Article J Clin Microbiol · January 2001 Compared with solid media, broth-based mycobacterial culture systems have increased sensitivity but also have higher false-positive rates due to cross-contamination. Systematic strain typing is rarely undertaken because the techniques are technically deman ... Full text Link to item Cite

Molecular epidemiology and tuberculosis control - Reply

Journal Article JAMA-JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION · July 19, 2000 Link to item Cite

Evaluation of the accuracy and reproducibility of a practical PCR panel assay for rapid detection and differentiation of Mycobacterium avium subspecies.

Journal Article Mol Cell Probes · June 2000 The Mycobacterium avium subspecies (MAs) include the closely related MAs avium and MAs paratuberculosis. This study was conducted to evaluate the performance of a PCR panel assay as a diagnostic tool to detect and differentiate MAs avium and MAs paratuberc ... Full text Link to item Cite

Mycobacteria: treatment approaches and mechanisms of resistance.

Journal Article J Med Liban · 2000 First-line drugs for tuberculosis treatment include isoniazid, rifampin, ethambutol, streptomycin, and pyrazinamide. Molecular mechanisms for resistance to each of these drugs have been elucidated. In every case, resistance is conferred by mutations in exi ... Link to item Cite

Identification of a W variant outbreak of Mycobacterium tuberculosis via population-based molecular epidemiology.

Journal Article JAMA · December 22, 1999 CONTEXT: Typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis could provide a more sensitive means of identifying outbreaks than use of conventional surveillance techniques alone. Variants of the New York City W strain of M tuberculosis were identified in New Jersey. OBJE ... Full text Link to item Cite

The GroEs antigens of Mycobacterium avium and Mycobacterium paratuberculosis

Journal Article International Journal of Leprosy and Other Mycobacterial Diseases · December 1, 1999 The GroES antigen provokes a strong immune response in human beings with tuberculosis or leprosy. We cloned and sequenced the Mycobacterium avium and M. paratuberculosis GroES genes. M. avium and M. paratuberculosis have identical GroES sequences which dif ... Cite

Protection against Mycobacterium avium by DNA vaccines expressing mycobacterial antigens as fusion proteins with green fluorescent protein

Journal Article International Journal of Leprosy and Other Mycobacterial Diseases · December 1, 1999 Mycobacterium avium causes disseminated disease in humans with AIDS, paratuberculosis in ruminants, lymphadenopathy in swine, and tuberculosis in birds. We constructed DNA vaccines expressing mycobacterial antigens as fusion proteins with enhanced green fl ... Cite

Bone marrow cultures for the diagnosis of mycobacterial and fungal infections in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus.

Journal Article Int J Tuberc Lung Dis · October 1999 SETTING: University medical center. OBJECTIVE: To determine the value of bone marrow cultures for mycobacteria and fungi in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). DESIGN: Retrospective review of charts and laboratory records. RESULT ... Link to item Cite

Complex transmission dynamics of clonally related virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis associated with barhopping by predominantly human immunodeficiency virus-positive gay men.

Journal Article J Infect Dis · October 1999 Limited data suggest that measures to reduce tuberculosis transmission should be based on locations rather than on personal contacts. Molecular epidemiologic methods (analysis of IS6110 patterns, spoligotypes, variable numbers of tandem DNA repeats, and au ... Full text Link to item Cite

Centrifugation without a balance tube

Journal Article AMERICAN LABORATORY · September 1, 1999 Link to item Cite

Protection against Mycobacterium avium by DNA vaccines expressing mycobacterial antigens as fusion proteins with green fluorescent protein.

Journal Article Infect Immun · August 1999 Mycobacterium avium causes disseminated disease in humans with AIDS, paratuberculosis in ruminants, lymphadenopathy in swine, and tuberculosis in birds. We constructed DNA vaccines expressing mycobacterial antigens as fusion proteins with enhanced green fl ... Full text Link to item Cite

Comparison of methods based on different molecular epidemiological markers for typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex strains: interlaboratory study of discriminatory power and reproducibility.

Journal Article J Clin Microbiol · August 1999 In this study, the currently known typing methods for Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates were evaluated with regard to reproducibility, discrimination, and specificity. Therefore, 90 M. tuberculosis complex strains, originating from 38 countries, were tes ... Full text Link to item Cite

The GroES antigens of Mycobacterium avium and Mycobacterium paratuberculosis.

Journal Article Vet Microbiol · June 1, 1999 The GroES antigen provokes a strong immune response in human beings with tuberculosis or leprosy. We cloned and sequenced the Mycobacterium avium and Mycobacterium paratuberculosis GroES genes. M. avium and M. paratuberculosis have identical GroES sequence ... Full text Link to item Cite

Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of Mycobacterium africanum isolates from West Africa.

Journal Article J Clin Microbiol · June 1999 The Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex includes M. tuberculosis, M. bovis, M. africanum, and M. microti. Most clinical isolates are M. tuberculosis or M. bovis. These species can be distinguished by phenotypes and genotypes. However, there is no simple def ... Full text Link to item Cite

Evolutionary bottlenecks in the agents of tuberculosis, leprosy, and paratuberculosis.

Journal Article Med Hypotheses · February 1999 Parasitic mycobacteria cause important human and animal diseases including tuberculosis, leprosy, and paratuberculosis. Several methods demonstrate a high degree of sequence conservation in three parasitic mycobacterial species (Mycobacterium tuberculosis, ... Full text Link to item Cite

Centrifugation without a balance tube

Journal Article American Biotechnology Laboratory · February 1, 1999 Cite

AIDS exceptionalism.

Journal Article Ann Intern Med · January 5, 1999 Full text Link to item Cite

AIDS exceptionalism.

Journal Article Ann Intern Med · January 5, 1999 Full text Link to item Cite

Prophylaxis after sexual exposure to HIV.

Journal Article Ann Intern Med · October 15, 1998 Full text Link to item Cite

Prophylaxis after sexual exposure to HIV.

Journal Article Ann Intern Med · October 15, 1998 Full text Link to item Cite

Genetic diversity in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex based on variable numbers of tandem DNA repeats.

Journal Article Microbiology (Reading) · May 1998 Genetic loci containing variable numbers of tandem repeats (VNTR loci) form the basis for human gene mapping and identification, forensic analysis and paternity testing. The variability of bacterial tandem repeats has not been systematically studied. Eleve ... Full text Link to item Cite

Disseminated Bacille Calmette‐Guérin Disease After Vaccination

Journal Article Clinical Infectious Diseases · March 1998 Full text Cite

Medical mystery--the answer revealed.

Journal Article N Engl J Med · January 22, 1998 Full text Link to item Cite

Medical mystery - The answer revealed - Reply

Journal Article NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE · January 22, 1998 Link to item Cite

A Medical Mystery.

Journal Article N Engl J Med · December 4, 1997 Full text Link to item Cite

Disseminated bacille Calmette-Guérin disease after vaccination: case report and review.

Journal Article Clin Infect Dis · June 1997 The attenuated bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine is administered to prevent tuberculosis. Complications of vaccination are uncommon. We report a new case of disseminated BCG disease and review 27 additional cases identified from a review of > 5,000 rep ... Full text Link to item Cite

Subspecific differentiation of Mycobacterium avium complex strains by automated sequencing of a region of the gene (hsp65) encoding a 65-kilodalton heat shock protein.

Journal Article Int J Syst Bacteriol · April 1997 To develop a strategy for rapid species assignment and strain differentiation of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) organisms, the sequence of a 360-bp region of the gene (hsp65) encoding a 65-kDa heat shock protein was determined for 56 isolates, including ... Full text Link to item Cite

The risks and benefits of childhood bacille Calmette-Guérin immunization among adults with AIDS. International MAC study groups.

Journal Article AIDS · April 1997 OBJECTIVE: To define the risks of disseminated bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) or disseminated Mycobacterium tuberculosis in adults with AIDS who were immunized with BCG in childhood. DESIGN: HIV-infected patients with CD4 < 200 x 10(6)/l were enrolled from ... Full text Link to item Cite

PCR identification of Mycobacterium bovis BCG.

Journal Article J Clin Microbiol · March 1997 The attenuated bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine strain is derived from a virulent strain of Mycobacterium bovis. BCG is difficult to differentiate from other strains of M. bovis and other members of the M. tuberculosis complex by conventional methods ... Full text Link to item Cite

Identification, cloning, and expression of the Escherichia coli pyrazinamidase and nicotinamidase gene, pncA.

Journal Article Antimicrob Agents Chemother · June 1996 Pyrazinamide (PZA) is one of the three most important drugs for treatment of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infections. The antibacterial activity of PZA requires a bacterial enzyme, pyrazinamidase (PZAase), which hydrolyzes PZA to form pyrazinoic acid and amm ... Full text Link to item Cite

Differentiation of strains in Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex by DNA sequence polymorphisms, including rapid identification of M. bovis BCG.

Journal Article J Clin Microbiol · April 1995 The Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex includes M. tuberculosis, M. bovis, M. microti, and M. africanum. Seven strains of the M. tuberculosis complex were sequenced in a region of about 300 bp which contains multiple 15-bp tandem repeats and which is part ... Full text Link to item Cite

Don't share razors or toothbrushes.

Journal Article Ann Intern Med · July 15, 1994 Full text Link to item Cite

Extensive DNA sequence conservation throughout the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex.

Journal Article J Clin Microbiol · July 1994 The Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex includes the four species M. tuberculosis, M. bovis, M. africanum, and M. microti. We sequenced 13 M. tuberculosis complex strains in the 16S-to-23S rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS). The ITS has a high rate of n ... Full text Link to item Cite

Molecular phylogeny of the Mycobacterium avium complex demonstrates clinically meaningful divisions.

Journal Article J Infect Dis · February 1994 Phylogenetic analysis of nucleotide sequence data is widely used for viral epidemiology. To explore its use in bacterial strain differentiation, the variable 16S-23S rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) in 24 clinical isolates originally identified as My ... Full text Link to item Cite

Sequence-based differentiation of strains in the Mycobacterium avium complex.

Journal Article J Bacteriol · May 1993 The complete 16S-23S rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) was sequenced in 35 reference strains of the Mycobacterium avium complex. Twelve distinct ITS sequences were obtained, each of which defined a "sequevar"; a sequevar consists of the strain or stra ... Full text Link to item Cite

Identification of the Whipple's disease bacillus.

Journal Article N Engl J Med · January 7, 1993 Full text Link to item Cite

Ribosomal DNA sequences of bifidobacteria: Implications for sequence-based identification of the human colonic flora

Journal Article Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease · January 1, 1993 We sequenced 16S ribosomal DNA from eight Bifidobacterium strains to explore the feasibility of using ribosomal RNA sequence to characterise the human colonic flora. The genus was well defined by this method. Closely related species could be readily distin ... Full text Cite

Acyclovir-resistant herpes simplex virus keratouveitis after penetrating keratoplasty.

Journal Article Ophthalmology · December 1992 PURPOSE: A case of acyclovir-resistant herpes simplex virus keratouveitis after penetrating keratoplasty is reported. METHODS: Resistance to acyclovir was evident clinically and was confirmed by in vitro susceptibility testing. The susceptibility of the he ... Full text Link to item Cite

HIV transmission in a dental practice.

Journal Article Ann Intern Med · November 1, 1992 Link to item Cite

UV absorption complicates PCR decontamination.

Journal Article Biotechniques · August 1992 UV irradiation is widely used to inactivate contaminating DNA in PCR. Highly UV-absorbent deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates in PCR mixtures reduce the efficiency of UV decontamination. Optimal decontamination may be achieved by irradiating the PCR mixture ... Link to item Cite

Phylogeny of the Whipple's-disease-associated bacterium.

Journal Article Lancet · August 24, 1991 Efforts to culture and identify the intracellular bacteria associated with Whipple's disease have been unsuccessful. Nucleotide sequencing and amplification by the polymerase chain reaction was done on the bacterial 16 S ribosomal DNA present in a small-bo ... Full text Link to item Cite

Rapid 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing from a single colony without DNA extraction or purification.

Journal Article Biotechniques · July 1991 Ribosomal RNA sequences are useful for establishing phylogenetic relationships, for oligonucleotide probes and for characterization of uncultured organisms. We describe rapid ribosomal DNA sequencing using PCR with transcript sequencing. Nucleic acid speci ... Link to item Cite

The agent of bacillary angiomatosis.

Journal Article N Engl J Med · May 23, 1991 Full text Link to item Cite

THE AGENT OF BACILLARY ANGIOMATOSIS

Journal Article NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE · May 23, 1991 Link to item Cite