Post-Translational Modification of HMGB1 and Its Role in Immune Activation
High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) functions as an alarmin following release from activated or necrotic cells and mediates inflammation. Translocation and extracellular release ofHMGB1can also occur during apoptosis. This translocation ofHMGB1from the nucleus to the cytoplasm results from post-translational modifications similar to those affecting histones. Such post-translational modifications of HMGB1 could also have effects on gene expression following changes in its DNA-binding properties. Furthermore, modified HMGB1 in the extracellular environment displays immunological activity and could serve as a potential target for new therapy. © 2009 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.