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Why Are Children in Urban Neighborhoods at Increased Risk for Psychotic Symptoms? Findings From a UK Longitudinal Cohort Study.

Publication ,  Journal Article
Newbury, J; Arseneault, L; Caspi, A; Moffitt, TE; Odgers, CL; Fisher, HL
Published in: Schizophrenia bulletin
November 2016

Urban upbringing is associated with a 2-fold adulthood psychosis risk, and this association replicates for childhood psychotic symptoms. No study has investigated whether specific features of urban neighborhoods increase children's risk for psychotic symptoms, despite these early psychotic phenomena elevating risk for schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders in adulthood.Analyses were conducted on over 2000 children from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study, a nationally-representative cohort of UK-born twins. Neighborhood-level characteristics were assessed for each family via: a geodemographic discriminator indexing neighborhood-level deprivation, postal surveys of over 5000 residents living alongside the children, and in-home interviews with the children's mothers. Children were interviewed about psychotic symptoms at age 12. Analyses were adjusted for important family-level confounders including socioeconomic status (SES), psychiatric history, and maternal psychosis.Urban residency at age-5 (OR = 1.80, 95% CI = 1.16-2.77) and age-12 (OR = 1.76, 95% CI = 1.15-2.69) were both significantly associated with childhood psychotic symptoms, but not with age-12 anxiety, depression, or antisocial behavior. The association was not attributable to family SES, family psychiatric history, or maternal psychosis, each implicated in childhood mental health. Low social cohesion, together with crime victimization in the neighborhood explained nearly a quarter of the association between urbanicity and childhood psychotic symptoms after considering family-level confounders.Low social cohesion and crime victimization in the neighborhood partly explain why children in cities have an elevated risk of developing psychotic symptoms. Greater understanding of the mechanisms leading from neighborhood-level exposures to psychotic symptoms could help target interventions for emerging childhood psychotic symptoms.

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Published In

Schizophrenia bulletin

DOI

EISSN

1745-1701

ISSN

1787-9965

Publication Date

November 2016

Volume

42

Issue

6

Start / End Page

1372 / 1383

Related Subject Headings

  • Urban Population
  • United Kingdom
  • Social Class
  • Risk Factors
  • Residence Characteristics
  • Psychotic Disorders
  • Psychiatry
  • Mothers
  • Male
  • Longitudinal Studies
 

Citation

APA
Chicago
ICMJE
MLA
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Newbury, J., Arseneault, L., Caspi, A., Moffitt, T. E., Odgers, C. L., & Fisher, H. L. (2016). Why Are Children in Urban Neighborhoods at Increased Risk for Psychotic Symptoms? Findings From a UK Longitudinal Cohort Study. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 42(6), 1372–1383. https://doi.org/10.1093/schbul/sbw052
Newbury, Joanne, Louise Arseneault, Avshalom Caspi, Terrie E. Moffitt, Candice L. Odgers, and Helen L. Fisher. “Why Are Children in Urban Neighborhoods at Increased Risk for Psychotic Symptoms? Findings From a UK Longitudinal Cohort Study.Schizophrenia Bulletin 42, no. 6 (November 2016): 1372–83. https://doi.org/10.1093/schbul/sbw052.
Newbury J, Arseneault L, Caspi A, Moffitt TE, Odgers CL, Fisher HL. Why Are Children in Urban Neighborhoods at Increased Risk for Psychotic Symptoms? Findings From a UK Longitudinal Cohort Study. Schizophrenia bulletin. 2016 Nov;42(6):1372–83.
Newbury, Joanne, et al. “Why Are Children in Urban Neighborhoods at Increased Risk for Psychotic Symptoms? Findings From a UK Longitudinal Cohort Study.Schizophrenia Bulletin, vol. 42, no. 6, Nov. 2016, pp. 1372–83. Epmc, doi:10.1093/schbul/sbw052.
Newbury J, Arseneault L, Caspi A, Moffitt TE, Odgers CL, Fisher HL. Why Are Children in Urban Neighborhoods at Increased Risk for Psychotic Symptoms? Findings From a UK Longitudinal Cohort Study. Schizophrenia bulletin. 2016 Nov;42(6):1372–1383.
Journal cover image

Published In

Schizophrenia bulletin

DOI

EISSN

1745-1701

ISSN

1787-9965

Publication Date

November 2016

Volume

42

Issue

6

Start / End Page

1372 / 1383

Related Subject Headings

  • Urban Population
  • United Kingdom
  • Social Class
  • Risk Factors
  • Residence Characteristics
  • Psychotic Disorders
  • Psychiatry
  • Mothers
  • Male
  • Longitudinal Studies