Immunotoxin Therapy for Brain Tumors
Despite a multimodal approach involving surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy, the median survival for malignant brain tumor patients is limited to 15-19. months. To improve glioblastoma patient survival, novel therapies targeting the heterogeneous tumor cell population are needed. Advances in understanding the molecular features of patients' tumors have led to the development of personalized tumor-targeted therapies that are more effective and less toxic. Immunotoxins, a novel class of antibody/ligand-toxin conjugates, have been developed during the last two decades for the treatment of brain tumors. The antibody/ligand domain of the immunotoxin binds to the target antigen on the tumor cell surface, whereas the toxin payload kills the tumor cells by inhibiting protein synthesis. Advances in immunotoxin delivery and monitoring of immunotoxin distribution in tumors are overcoming the challenges in the brain tumor therapy field. Herein, we summarize the different antiglioma immunotoxins that are at the preclinical and clinical stages of development.