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Tracing Genetic Exchange and Biogeography of Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii at the Global Population Level.

Publication ,  Journal Article
Rhodes, J; Desjardins, CA; Sykes, SM; Beale, MA; Vanhove, M; Sakthikumar, S; Chen, Y; Gujja, S; Saif, S; Chowdhary, A; Lawson, DJ; Ponzio, V ...
Published in: Genetics
September 2017

Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii is the causative agent of cryptococcal meningitis, a significant source of mortality in immunocompromised individuals, typically human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS patients from developing countries. Despite the worldwide emergence of this ubiquitous infection, little is known about the global molecular epidemiology of this fungal pathogen. Here we sequence the genomes of 188 diverse isolates and characterize the major subdivisions, their relative diversity, and the level of genetic exchange between them. While most isolates of C. neoformans var. grubii belong to one of three major lineages (VNI, VNII, and VNB), some haploid isolates show hybrid ancestry including some that appear to have recently interbred, based on the detection of large blocks of each ancestry across each chromosome. Many isolates display evidence of aneuploidy, which was detected for all chromosomes. In diploid isolates of C. neoformans var. grubii (serotype AA) and of hybrids with C. neoformans var. neoformans (serotype AD) such aneuploidies have resulted in loss of heterozygosity, where a chromosomal region is represented by the genotype of only one parental isolate. Phylogenetic and population genomic analyses of isolates from Brazil reveal that the previously "African" VNB lineage occurs naturally in the South American environment. This suggests migration of the VNB lineage between Africa and South America prior to its diversification, supported by finding ancestral recombination events between isolates from different lineages and regions. The results provide evidence of substantial population structure, with all lineages showing multi-continental distributions; demonstrating the highly dispersive nature of this pathogen.

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Published In

Genetics

DOI

EISSN

1943-2631

Publication Date

September 2017

Volume

207

Issue

1

Start / End Page

327 / 346

Location

United States

Related Subject Headings

  • Recombination, Genetic
  • Phylogeography
  • Phylogeny
  • Loss of Heterozygosity
  • Genome, Fungal
  • Evolution, Molecular
  • Developmental Biology
  • Cryptococcus neoformans
  • Chromosomes, Fungal
  • Aneuploidy
 

Citation

APA
Chicago
ICMJE
MLA
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Rhodes, J., Desjardins, C. A., Sykes, S. M., Beale, M. A., Vanhove, M., Sakthikumar, S., … Cuomo, C. A. (2017). Tracing Genetic Exchange and Biogeography of Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii at the Global Population Level. Genetics, 207(1), 327–346. https://doi.org/10.1534/genetics.117.203836
Rhodes, Johanna, Christopher A. Desjardins, Sean M. Sykes, Mathew A. Beale, Mathieu Vanhove, Sharadha Sakthikumar, Yuan Chen, et al. “Tracing Genetic Exchange and Biogeography of Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii at the Global Population Level.Genetics 207, no. 1 (September 2017): 327–46. https://doi.org/10.1534/genetics.117.203836.
Rhodes J, Desjardins CA, Sykes SM, Beale MA, Vanhove M, Sakthikumar S, et al. Tracing Genetic Exchange and Biogeography of Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii at the Global Population Level. Genetics. 2017 Sep;207(1):327–46.
Rhodes, Johanna, et al. “Tracing Genetic Exchange and Biogeography of Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii at the Global Population Level.Genetics, vol. 207, no. 1, Sept. 2017, pp. 327–46. Pubmed, doi:10.1534/genetics.117.203836.
Rhodes J, Desjardins CA, Sykes SM, Beale MA, Vanhove M, Sakthikumar S, Chen Y, Gujja S, Saif S, Chowdhary A, Lawson DJ, Ponzio V, Colombo AL, Meyer W, Engelthaler DM, Hagen F, Illnait-Zaragozi MT, Alanio A, Vreulink J-M, Heitman J, Perfect JR, Litvintseva AP, Bicanic T, Harrison TS, Fisher MC, Cuomo CA. Tracing Genetic Exchange and Biogeography of Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii at the Global Population Level. Genetics. 2017 Sep;207(1):327–346.

Published In

Genetics

DOI

EISSN

1943-2631

Publication Date

September 2017

Volume

207

Issue

1

Start / End Page

327 / 346

Location

United States

Related Subject Headings

  • Recombination, Genetic
  • Phylogeography
  • Phylogeny
  • Loss of Heterozygosity
  • Genome, Fungal
  • Evolution, Molecular
  • Developmental Biology
  • Cryptococcus neoformans
  • Chromosomes, Fungal
  • Aneuploidy