Enhanced recovery protocols for colorectal surgery and postoperative renal function: a retrospective review.
BACKGROUND: While enhanced recovery protocols (ERPs) reduce physiologic stress and improve outcomes in general, their effects on postoperative renal function have not been directly studied. METHODS: Patients undergoing major colorectal surgery under ERP (February 2010 to March 2013) were compared with a traditional care control group (October 2004 October 2007) at a single institution. Multivariable regression models examined the association of ERP with postoperative creatinine changes and incidence of postoperative acute kidney dysfunction (based on the Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss, and End-stage renal disease criteria). RESULTS: Included were 1054 patients: 590 patients underwent surgery with ERP and 464 patients without ERP. Patient demographics were not significantly different. Higher rates of neoplastic and inflammatory bowel disease surgical indications were found in the ERP group (81 vs. 74%, p = 0.045). Patients in the ERP group had more comorbidities (ASA ≥ 3) (62 vs. 40%, p < 0.001). In unadjusted analysis, postoperative creatinine increase was slightly higher in the ERP group compared with control (median 0.1 vs. 0 mg/dL, p < 0.001), but levels of postoperative acute kidney injury were similar in both groups (p = 0.998). After adjustment with multivariable regression, postoperative changes in creatinine were similar in ERP vs. control (p = 0.25). CONCLUSIONS: ERP in colorectal surgery is not associated with a clinically significant increase in postoperative creatinine or incidence of postoperative kidney injury. Our results support the safety of ERPs in colorectal surgery and may promote expanding implementation of these protocols. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Not applicable, prospective data collection and retrospective chart review only.