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Variability in negative emotions among individuals with chronic low back pain: relationships with pain and function.

Publication ,  Journal Article
Gerhart, JI; Burns, JW; Bruehl, S; Smith, DA; Post, KM; Porter, LS; Schuster, E; Buvanendran, A; Fras, AM; Keefe, FJ
Published in: Pain
February 2018

Chronic pain is associated with elevated negative emotions, and resources needed to adaptively regulate these emotions can be depleted during prolonged pain. Studies of links between pain, function, and negative emotions in people with chronic pain, however, have focused almost exclusively on relationships among mean levels of these factors. Indexes that may reflect aspects of emotion regulation have typically not been analyzed. We propose that 1 index of emotion regulation is variability in emotion over time as opposed to average emotion over time. The sample was 105 people with chronic low back pain and 105 of their pain-free spouses. They completed electronic diary measures 5x/d for 14 consecutive days, producing 70 observations per person from which we derived estimates of within-subject variance in negative emotions. Location-scale models were used to simultaneously model predictors of both mean level and variance in patient negative emotions over time. Patients reported significantly more variability in negative emotions compared to their spouses. Patients who reported higher average levels of pain, pain interference, and downtime reported significantly higher levels of variability in negative emotions. Spouse-observed pain and pain behaviors were also associated with greater variability in patients' negative emotions. Test of the inverse associations between negative emotion level and variability in pain and function were significant but weaker in magnitude. These findings support the notion that chronic pain may erode negative emotion regulation resources, to the potential detriment of intra- and inter-personal function.

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Published In

Pain

DOI

EISSN

1872-6623

Publication Date

February 2018

Volume

159

Issue

2

Start / End Page

342 / 350

Location

United States

Related Subject Headings

  • Young Adult
  • Spouses
  • Pain Measurement
  • Middle Aged
  • Male
  • Low Back Pain
  • Interpersonal Relations
  • Humans
  • Female
  • Electronic Health Records
 

Citation

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Gerhart, J. I., Burns, J. W., Bruehl, S., Smith, D. A., Post, K. M., Porter, L. S., … Keefe, F. J. (2018). Variability in negative emotions among individuals with chronic low back pain: relationships with pain and function. Pain, 159(2), 342–350. https://doi.org/10.1097/j.pain.0000000000001102
Gerhart, James I., John W. Burns, Stephen Bruehl, David A. Smith, Kristina M. Post, Laura S. Porter, Erik Schuster, Asokumar Buvanendran, Anne Marie Fras, and Francis J. Keefe. “Variability in negative emotions among individuals with chronic low back pain: relationships with pain and function.Pain 159, no. 2 (February 2018): 342–50. https://doi.org/10.1097/j.pain.0000000000001102.
Gerhart JI, Burns JW, Bruehl S, Smith DA, Post KM, Porter LS, et al. Variability in negative emotions among individuals with chronic low back pain: relationships with pain and function. Pain. 2018 Feb;159(2):342–50.
Gerhart, James I., et al. “Variability in negative emotions among individuals with chronic low back pain: relationships with pain and function.Pain, vol. 159, no. 2, Feb. 2018, pp. 342–50. Pubmed, doi:10.1097/j.pain.0000000000001102.
Gerhart JI, Burns JW, Bruehl S, Smith DA, Post KM, Porter LS, Schuster E, Buvanendran A, Fras AM, Keefe FJ. Variability in negative emotions among individuals with chronic low back pain: relationships with pain and function. Pain. 2018 Feb;159(2):342–350.

Published In

Pain

DOI

EISSN

1872-6623

Publication Date

February 2018

Volume

159

Issue

2

Start / End Page

342 / 350

Location

United States

Related Subject Headings

  • Young Adult
  • Spouses
  • Pain Measurement
  • Middle Aged
  • Male
  • Low Back Pain
  • Interpersonal Relations
  • Humans
  • Female
  • Electronic Health Records