Systemic inflammatory response syndrome, infection, and outcome in intracerebral hemorrhage.
OBJECTIVE: Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) may be related to poor outcomes after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). METHODS: The Ethnic/Racial Variations of Intracerebral Hemorrhage study is an observational study of ICH in whites, blacks, and Hispanics throughout the United Sates. SIRS was defined by standard criteria as 2 or more of the following on admission: (1) body temperature <36°C or >38°C, (2) heart rate >90 beats per minute, (3) respiratory rate >20 breaths per minute, or (4) white blood cell count <4,000/mm3 or >12,000/mm3. The relationship among SIRS, infection, and poor outcome (modified Rankin Scale [mRS] 3-6) at discharge and 3 months was assessed. RESULTS: Of 2,441 patients included, 343 (14%) met SIRS criteria at admission. Patients with SIRS were younger (58.2 vs 62.7 years; p < 0.0001) and more likely to have intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH; 53.6% vs 36.7%; p < 0.0001), higher admission hematoma volume (25.4 vs 17.5 mL; p < 0.0001), and lower admission Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS; 10.7 vs 13.1; p < 0.0001). SIRS on admission was significantly related to infections during hospitalization (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.36, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.04-1.78). In unadjusted analyses, SIRS was associated with poor outcomes at discharge (OR 1.96, 95% CI 1.42-2.70) and 3 months (OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.35-2.33) after ICH. In analyses adjusted for infection, age, IVH, hematoma location, admission GCS, and premorbid mRS, SIRS was no longer associated with poor outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: SIRS on admission is associated with ICH score on admission and infection, but it was not an independent predictor of poor functional outcomes after ICH.