Erythema dyschromicum perstans: A case report and systematic review of histologic presentation and treatment.
OBJECTIVE: Erythema dyschromicum perstans (EDP) can be difficult to diagnose and treat; therefore, we reviewed the literature to assess whether histology can be used to differentiate lichen planus pigmentosus (LPP) from EDP and determine which treatments are the most effective for EDP. We also present a case of a patient who was treated successfully with narrow-band ultraviolet B (NB-UVB). METHODS: A systematic review in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses was conducted up to July 2017 using four databases. RESULTS: Histologic analyses from the literature reveal a significant percentage of melanophages, lymphocytic infiltrates, and basal vacuolar degeneration in EDP, and a significant histologic overlap with LPP. The review of the literature on treatment outcomes showed that NB-UVB and tacrolimus were effective with minimal side effects. Clofazimine was effective, but demonstrated significant-to-intolerable side effects. Griseofulvin, isotretinoin, and dapsone provided unsatisfactory results as lesions recurred after discontinuation. Lasers were largely ineffective and may cause postinflammatory hyperpigmentation and fibrosis. CONCLUSION: A diagnosis of EDP should not be based on histologic findings alone. Clinical history, morphology, and distribution should be used to differentiate EDP and LPP. NB-UVB and tacrolimus are promising treatments for EDP with minimal side effects. This is the first report to our knowledge of sustained resolution of EDP after treatment with NB-UVB at long-term follow-up of 4 years. Larger studies are needed to confirm these findings.