Phase transitions far from equilibrium in wet granular matter
The phase diagram of vertically agitated wet granular matter is presented, both experimentally and by simulation. We observe two phase transitions, one of which is driven by the applied force (acceleration), the other by injected energy (velocity of container walls). All observed features can be traced down to the hysteretic nature of capillary bridge formation and rupture. Other details of the interaction are remarkably irrelevant, suggesting a certain universality for the investigated phenomena. © IOP Publishing Ltd and Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft.