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Associations of Childhood and Adolescent Depression With Adult Psychiatric and Functional Outcomes.

Publication ,  Journal Article
Copeland, WE; Alaie, I; Jonsson, U; Shanahan, L
Published in: J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry
May 2021

OBJECTIVE: Depression is common, impairing, and the leading cause of disease burden in youths. This study aimed to identify the effects of childhood/adolescent depression on a broad range of longer-term outcomes. METHOD: The analysis is based on the prospective, representative Great Smoky Mountains Study of 1,420 participants. Participants were assessed with the structured Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Assessment interview up to 8 times in childhood (age 9-16 years; 6,674 observations; 1993-2000) for DSM-based depressive disorders, associated psychiatric comorbidities, and childhood adversities. Participants were followed up 4 times in adulthood (ages 19, 21, 25, and 30 years; 4,556 observations of 1,336 participants; 1999-2015) with the structured Young Adult Psychiatric Assessment Interview for psychiatric outcomes and functional outcomes. RESULTS: In all, 7.7% of participants met criteria for a depressive disorder in childhood/adolescence. Any childhood/adolescent depression was associated with higher levels of adult anxiety and illicit drug disorders and also with worse health, criminal, and social functioning; these associations persisted when childhood psychiatric comorbidities and adversities were accounted for. No sex-specific patterns were identified. However, timing of depression mattered: individuals with adolescent-onset depression had worse outcomes than those with child-onset. Average depressive symptoms throughout childhood and adolescence were associated with more adverse outcomes. Finally, specialty mental health service use was protective against adult diagnostic outcomes. CONCLUSION: Early depression and especially persistent childhood/adolescent depressive symptoms have robust, lasting associations with adult functioning. Some of these effects may be attenuated by service use.

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Published In

J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry

DOI

EISSN

1527-5418

Publication Date

May 2021

Volume

60

Issue

5

Start / End Page

604 / 611

Location

United States

Related Subject Headings

  • Young Adult
  • Prospective Studies
  • Mental Health Services
  • Humans
  • Family
  • Developmental & Child Psychology
  • Depression
  • Child
  • Anxiety Disorders
  • Adult
 

Citation

APA
Chicago
ICMJE
MLA
NLM
Copeland, W. E., Alaie, I., Jonsson, U., & Shanahan, L. (2021). Associations of Childhood and Adolescent Depression With Adult Psychiatric and Functional Outcomes. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry, 60(5), 604–611. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaac.2020.07.895
Copeland, William E., Iman Alaie, Ulf Jonsson, and Lilly Shanahan. “Associations of Childhood and Adolescent Depression With Adult Psychiatric and Functional Outcomes.J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 60, no. 5 (May 2021): 604–11. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaac.2020.07.895.
Copeland WE, Alaie I, Jonsson U, Shanahan L. Associations of Childhood and Adolescent Depression With Adult Psychiatric and Functional Outcomes. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2021 May;60(5):604–11.
Copeland, William E., et al. “Associations of Childhood and Adolescent Depression With Adult Psychiatric and Functional Outcomes.J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry, vol. 60, no. 5, May 2021, pp. 604–11. Pubmed, doi:10.1016/j.jaac.2020.07.895.
Copeland WE, Alaie I, Jonsson U, Shanahan L. Associations of Childhood and Adolescent Depression With Adult Psychiatric and Functional Outcomes. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2021 May;60(5):604–611.
Journal cover image

Published In

J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry

DOI

EISSN

1527-5418

Publication Date

May 2021

Volume

60

Issue

5

Start / End Page

604 / 611

Location

United States

Related Subject Headings

  • Young Adult
  • Prospective Studies
  • Mental Health Services
  • Humans
  • Family
  • Developmental & Child Psychology
  • Depression
  • Child
  • Anxiety Disorders
  • Adult