Skip to main content
construction release_alert
Scholars@Duke will be undergoing maintenance April 11-15. Some features may be unavailable during this time.
cancel
Journal cover image

Field Evaluation of a Potential Exposure Biomarker of Methylated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons: Association between Urinary Phenanthrene-2-carboxylic Acid and Personal Exposure to 2-Methylphenanthrene

Publication ,  Journal Article
Lin, Y; Zhang, H; Han, Y; Qiu, X; Jiang, X; Cheng, Z; Wang, Y; Chen, X; Fan, Y; Li, W; Zhang, J; Zhu, T
Published in: Environmental Science and Technology Letters
February 8, 2022

Previous in vitro studies identified carboxylic acids as the major metabolites of methylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). We have previously detected phenanthrene-2-carboxylic acid (2-PHECA) in human urine, but a direct linkage between this biomarker and external exposure to methylated PAHs remains unestablished. Herein, we analyzed phenanthrene (PHE) and 2-MePHE in 589 personal PM2.5 samples and hydroxy-phenanthrenes (ςOH-PHEs) and 2-PHECA in paired urine samples from 120 urban residents. We observed higher personal 2-MePHE and PHE exposure but lower urinary 2-PHECA and ςOH-PHEs levels in the heating season, possibly due to changes in gas-particle partitioning, dietary source, and metabolism. After adjusting for seasonal effects, urinary 2-PHECA concentrations were significantly associated with personal exposure to 2-MePHE but not PHE. We also found significant associations between the urinary 2-PHECA/ςOH-PHEs ratio and personal 2-MePHE/PHE ratio, an indicator for the petrogenic versus pyrogenic sources. Alcohol consumption was identified as an influencing factor for the 2-PHECA level and 2-PHECA/ςOH-PHEs ratio, likely via competing the metabolism of 2-MePHE by alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases. These results suggest the potential usefulness of the urinary 2-PHECA level as a biomarker of methylated PAH exposure and the 2-PHECA/ςOH-PHEs ratio as a biomarker for the relative importance of petrogenic or pyrogenic sources.

Duke Scholars

Altmetric Attention Stats
Dimensions Citation Stats

Published In

Environmental Science and Technology Letters

DOI

EISSN

2328-8930

Publication Date

February 8, 2022

Volume

9

Issue

2

Start / End Page

166 / 172

Related Subject Headings

  • 4105 Pollution and contamination
  • 4004 Chemical engineering
  • 1002 Environmental Biotechnology
  • 0907 Environmental Engineering
  • 0502 Environmental Science and Management
 

Citation

APA
Chicago
ICMJE
MLA
NLM
Lin, Y., Zhang, H., Han, Y., Qiu, X., Jiang, X., Cheng, Z., … Zhu, T. (2022). Field Evaluation of a Potential Exposure Biomarker of Methylated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons: Association between Urinary Phenanthrene-2-carboxylic Acid and Personal Exposure to 2-Methylphenanthrene. Environmental Science and Technology Letters, 9(2), 166–172. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.estlett.1c00938
Lin, Y., H. Zhang, Y. Han, X. Qiu, X. Jiang, Z. Cheng, Y. Wang, et al. “Field Evaluation of a Potential Exposure Biomarker of Methylated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons: Association between Urinary Phenanthrene-2-carboxylic Acid and Personal Exposure to 2-Methylphenanthrene.” Environmental Science and Technology Letters 9, no. 2 (February 8, 2022): 166–72. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.estlett.1c00938.
Lin, Y., et al. “Field Evaluation of a Potential Exposure Biomarker of Methylated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons: Association between Urinary Phenanthrene-2-carboxylic Acid and Personal Exposure to 2-Methylphenanthrene.” Environmental Science and Technology Letters, vol. 9, no. 2, Feb. 2022, pp. 166–72. Scopus, doi:10.1021/acs.estlett.1c00938.
Lin Y, Zhang H, Han Y, Qiu X, Jiang X, Cheng Z, Wang Y, Chen X, Fan Y, Li W, Zhang J, Zhu T. Field Evaluation of a Potential Exposure Biomarker of Methylated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons: Association between Urinary Phenanthrene-2-carboxylic Acid and Personal Exposure to 2-Methylphenanthrene. Environmental Science and Technology Letters. 2022 Feb 8;9(2):166–172.
Journal cover image

Published In

Environmental Science and Technology Letters

DOI

EISSN

2328-8930

Publication Date

February 8, 2022

Volume

9

Issue

2

Start / End Page

166 / 172

Related Subject Headings

  • 4105 Pollution and contamination
  • 4004 Chemical engineering
  • 1002 Environmental Biotechnology
  • 0907 Environmental Engineering
  • 0502 Environmental Science and Management