Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitors and Management of Refractory Hypomagnesemia Without Overt Urinary Magnesium Wasting: A Report of 2 Cases.
Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor have become widely used in patients with diabetes, heart failure, and kidney disease to improve clinical outcomes and diminish hospitalizations. They have also been associated with increased serum magnesium levels in patients with type 2 diabetes. The use of SGLT2 inhibitors resulted in improved magnesium homeostasis in a series of patients with refractory hypomagnesemia with urinary magnesium wasting. However, the role of SLGT2 inhibitors in patients with hypomagnesemia without urinary magnesium wasting remains unexplored. We report 2 cases with refractory hypomagnesemia without significant urinary magnesium wasting and dramatically improved serum magnesium levels after the initiation of SGLT2 inhibitors. Case 1 achieved independence from weekly intravenous magnesium infusions and reached sustainably greater serum magnesium levels with decreased oral magnesium supplementation and increased urinary fractional excretion of magnesium. Case 2 demonstrated improved serum magnesium levels with reduced oral magnesium supplementation without significant reduction in urinary fractional excretion of magnesium. These findings not only expand the use of SGLT2 inhibitors but also open the door for further studies to better understand the pathophysiology of how magnesium homeostasis is altered with inhibition of SGLT2.