Application of Biomarkers in Assessing Health Risk of Indoor Air Pollutants
Increasing attention has been paid on health risks of indoor air pollution since most people spend up to 90% of their time indoors. The indoor air pollution mixture is mainly comprised of particulate matter (PM) and gaseous pollutants such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), and sulfur dioxide (SO2) as well as emerging contaminants such as semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs). Indoor air pollution from solid fuel combustion is among the ten largest contributors to global burden of disease. Pathophysiology-based biomarkers are useful in the identification of early adverse health effects and in surveillance or monitoring of health status or disease progression. To facilitate appropriate applications of biomarkers in assessing health risk of indoor air pollutants, this chapter summarized researches exploring the adverse effects of indoor air pollutants exposure on the respiratory system, cardiovascular system, hematologic system, immune system, reproductive system, and other systems using representative biomarkers. The summary intends to facilitate understanding of the potential biological mechanisms through which the major indoor air pollutants would affect human health.