A frequency-domain model-based reconstruction method for transcranial photoacoustic imaging: A 2D numerical investigation.
Phase aberration caused by the skull is a major barrier to achieving high quality photoacoustic images of human and non-human primates' brains. To address this issue, time-reversal methods have been used but they are computationally demanding and slow due to relying on solving the full-wave equation. The proposed approach is based on model-based image reconstruction in the frequency-domain to achieve near real-time image reconstruction. The relationship between an imaging region and transducer array elements can be mathematically described as a model matrix and the image reconstruction can be performed by pseudo-inverse of the model matrix. The model matrix is numerically calculated due to the lack of analytical solutions for transcranial ultrasound. However, this calculation only needs to be performed once for a given experimental setup and the same acoustic medium, and is an offline process not affecting the actual image reconstruction time. This non-iterative mode-based method demonstrates a substantial improvement in image reconstruction time, being approximately 18 times faster than the time-reversal method, all while maintaining comparable image quality.