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Daylength during pregnancy and shyness in children: results from northern and southern hemispheres.

Publication ,  Journal Article
Gortmaker, SL; Kagan, J; Caspi, A; Silva, PA
Published in: Developmental psychobiology
September 1997

An extreme degree of shyness in young children is a temperamental trait under modest genetic influence and characterized by distinct physiological profiles. Data from both the United States and New Zealand indicate that maternal exposure to short daylength during pregnancy, especially the midpoint of gestation, predicts an increased risk of subsequent shy behavior in children. Estimates of attributable risk indicate that approximately one-quarter of shyness prevalence can be linked to pregnancy during times of reduced daylength. This phenomenon might be mediated by changing concentrations of melatonin, serotonin, or other neurotransmitters or corticoids that are known to covary with seasonal variations in daylength.

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Published In

Developmental psychobiology

DOI

EISSN

1098-2302

ISSN

0012-1630

Publication Date

September 1997

Volume

31

Issue

2

Start / End Page

107 / 114

Related Subject Headings

  • United States
  • Temperament
  • Shyness
  • Risk Factors
  • Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects
  • Pregnancy
  • Personality Assessment
  • New Zealand
  • Male
  • Longitudinal Studies
 

Citation

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Chicago
ICMJE
MLA
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Gortmaker, S. L., Kagan, J., Caspi, A., & Silva, P. A. (1997). Daylength during pregnancy and shyness in children: results from northern and southern hemispheres. Developmental Psychobiology, 31(2), 107–114. https://doi.org/10.1002/(sici)1098-2302(199709)31:2<107::aid-dev3>3.0.co;2-o
Gortmaker, S. L., J. Kagan, A. Caspi, and P. A. Silva. “Daylength during pregnancy and shyness in children: results from northern and southern hemispheres.Developmental Psychobiology 31, no. 2 (September 1997): 107–14. https://doi.org/10.1002/(sici)1098-2302(199709)31:2<107::aid-dev3>3.0.co;2-o.
Gortmaker SL, Kagan J, Caspi A, Silva PA. Daylength during pregnancy and shyness in children: results from northern and southern hemispheres. Developmental psychobiology. 1997 Sep;31(2):107–14.
Gortmaker, S. L., et al. “Daylength during pregnancy and shyness in children: results from northern and southern hemispheres.Developmental Psychobiology, vol. 31, no. 2, Sept. 1997, pp. 107–14. Epmc, doi:10.1002/(sici)1098-2302(199709)31:2<107::aid-dev3>3.0.co;2-o.
Gortmaker SL, Kagan J, Caspi A, Silva PA. Daylength during pregnancy and shyness in children: results from northern and southern hemispheres. Developmental psychobiology. 1997 Sep;31(2):107–114.
Journal cover image

Published In

Developmental psychobiology

DOI

EISSN

1098-2302

ISSN

0012-1630

Publication Date

September 1997

Volume

31

Issue

2

Start / End Page

107 / 114

Related Subject Headings

  • United States
  • Temperament
  • Shyness
  • Risk Factors
  • Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects
  • Pregnancy
  • Personality Assessment
  • New Zealand
  • Male
  • Longitudinal Studies