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Detection of organophosphate flame retardants in furniture foam and U.S. house dust.

Publication ,  Journal Article
Stapleton, HM; Klosterhaus, S; Eagle, S; Fuh, J; Meeker, JD; Blum, A; Webster, TF
Published in: Environmental science & technology
October 2009

Restrictions on the use of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have resulted in the increased use of alternate flame retardant chemicals to meet flammability standards. However, it has been difficult to determine which chemical formulations are currently being used in high volumes to meet flammability standards since the use of flame retardant formulations in consumer products is not transparent (i.e., not provided to customers). To investigate chemicals being used as replacements for PentaBDE in polyurethane foam, we analyzed foam samples from 26 different pieces of furniture purchased in the United States primarily between 2003 and 2009. Samples included foam from couches, chairs, mattress pads, pillows, and, in one case, foam from a sound-proofing system of a laboratory-grade dust sieve, and were analyzed using gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Fifteen of the foam samples contained the flame retardanttris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP; 1-5% by weight), four samples contained tris(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TCPP; 0.5 -22% by weight), one sample contained brominated chemicals found in a new flame retardant mixture called Firemaster 550 (4.2% by weight), and one foam sample collected from a futon likely purchased prior to 2004 contained PentaBDE (0.5% by weight). Due to the high frequency of detection of the chlorinated phosphate compounds in furniture foam,we analyzed extracts from 50 house dust samples collected between 2002 and 2007 in the Boston, MA area for TDCPP, TCPP, and another high volume use organophosphate-based flame retardant used in foam, triphenylphosphate (TPP). Detection frequencies for TDCPP and TPP in the dust samples were > 96% and were log normally distributed, similar to observations for PBDEs. TCPP was positively detected in dust in only 24% of the samples, but detection was significantly limited by a coelution problem. The geometric mean concentrations for TCPP, TDCPP, and TPP in house dust were 570, 1890, and 7360 ng/g, respectively, and maximum values detected in dust were 5490, 56,080 and 1,798,000 ng/g, respectively. These data suggest that levels of these organophosphate flame retardants are comparable, or in some cases greater than, levels of PBDEs in house dust. The high prevalence of these chemicals in foam and the high concentrations measured in dust (as high as 1.8 mg/g) warrant further studies to evaluate potential health effects from dust exposure, particularly for children.

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Published In

Environmental science & technology

DOI

EISSN

1520-5851

ISSN

0013-936X

Publication Date

October 2009

Volume

43

Issue

19

Start / End Page

7490 / 7495

Related Subject Headings

  • United States
  • Porphyrins
  • Organophosphorus Compounds
  • Organophosphates
  • Molecular Structure
  • Interior Design and Furnishings
  • Housing
  • Flame Retardants
  • Environmental Sciences
  • Dust
 

Citation

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Stapleton, H. M., Klosterhaus, S., Eagle, S., Fuh, J., Meeker, J. D., Blum, A., & Webster, T. F. (2009). Detection of organophosphate flame retardants in furniture foam and U.S. house dust. Environmental Science & Technology, 43(19), 7490–7495. https://doi.org/10.1021/es9014019
Stapleton, Heather M., Susan Klosterhaus, Sarah Eagle, Jennifer Fuh, John D. Meeker, Arlene Blum, and Thomas F. Webster. “Detection of organophosphate flame retardants in furniture foam and U.S. house dust.Environmental Science & Technology 43, no. 19 (October 2009): 7490–95. https://doi.org/10.1021/es9014019.
Stapleton HM, Klosterhaus S, Eagle S, Fuh J, Meeker JD, Blum A, et al. Detection of organophosphate flame retardants in furniture foam and U.S. house dust. Environmental science & technology. 2009 Oct;43(19):7490–5.
Stapleton, Heather M., et al. “Detection of organophosphate flame retardants in furniture foam and U.S. house dust.Environmental Science & Technology, vol. 43, no. 19, Oct. 2009, pp. 7490–95. Epmc, doi:10.1021/es9014019.
Stapleton HM, Klosterhaus S, Eagle S, Fuh J, Meeker JD, Blum A, Webster TF. Detection of organophosphate flame retardants in furniture foam and U.S. house dust. Environmental science & technology. 2009 Oct;43(19):7490–7495.
Journal cover image

Published In

Environmental science & technology

DOI

EISSN

1520-5851

ISSN

0013-936X

Publication Date

October 2009

Volume

43

Issue

19

Start / End Page

7490 / 7495

Related Subject Headings

  • United States
  • Porphyrins
  • Organophosphorus Compounds
  • Organophosphates
  • Molecular Structure
  • Interior Design and Furnishings
  • Housing
  • Flame Retardants
  • Environmental Sciences
  • Dust