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Reducing the dose of smallpox vaccine reduces vaccine-associated morbidity without reducing vaccination success rates or immune responses.

Publication ,  Journal Article
Couch, RB; Winokur, P; Edwards, KM; Black, S; Atmar, RL; Stapleton, JT; Kissner, JM; Shinefield, H; Denny, TN; Bybel, MJ; Newman, FK; Yan, L ...
Published in: J Infect Dis
March 15, 2007

BACKGROUND: When the decision was made to prepare for a deliberate release of smallpox, the United States had approximately 15 million doses of Wyeth Dryvax vaccine, which was known to induce significant morbidity when used undiluted; Sanofi Pasteur, Inc., later identified approximately 85 million additional doses in storage. METHODS: Eleven vaccine-dose groups, each with 30 vaccinia-naive subjects, were given diluted Dryvax vaccine or 1 of 2 lots of Sanofi Pasteur smallpox vaccine and were evaluated for vaccination success rates, morbidity, and immune responses. RESULTS: Estimated doses of 10(6.6)-10(8.2) pfu of virus/mL induced major reactions (or "takes") in 93%-100% of subjects in each dose group. No differences in vaccination take rates, lesion size, erythema, and induration or in serum neutralizing-antibody response were detected between the groups. However, systemic reactogenicity and missed activities were significantly lower for the vaccine groups given doses of 10(6.6)-10(7.2) pfu/mL than for those given doses of 10(7.6)-10(8.2) pfu/mL. CONCLUSIONS: These findings support the use of a higher dilution of Wyeth Dryvax vaccine and Sanofi Pasteur smallpox vaccine, given that the resulting morbidity should be significantly lower without loss of vaccine effectiveness. A plan for use of higher dilutions would create an enormous stockpile of vaccine.

Duke Scholars

Published In

J Infect Dis

DOI

ISSN

0022-1899

Publication Date

March 15, 2007

Volume

195

Issue

6

Start / End Page

826 / 832

Location

United States

Related Subject Headings

  • Variola virus
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Smallpox Vaccine
  • Microbiology
  • Male
  • Humans
  • Female
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • Chorion
  • Chick Embryo
 

Citation

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MLA
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Couch, R. B., Winokur, P., Edwards, K. M., Black, S., Atmar, R. L., Stapleton, J. T., … National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Smallpox Vaccine Study Group, . (2007). Reducing the dose of smallpox vaccine reduces vaccine-associated morbidity without reducing vaccination success rates or immune responses. J Infect Dis, 195(6), 826–832. https://doi.org/10.1086/511828
Couch, Robert B., Patricia Winokur, Kathryn M. Edwards, Steven Black, Robert L. Atmar, Jack T. Stapleton, Jennifer M. Kissner, et al. “Reducing the dose of smallpox vaccine reduces vaccine-associated morbidity without reducing vaccination success rates or immune responses.J Infect Dis 195, no. 6 (March 15, 2007): 826–32. https://doi.org/10.1086/511828.
Couch RB, Winokur P, Edwards KM, Black S, Atmar RL, Stapleton JT, et al. Reducing the dose of smallpox vaccine reduces vaccine-associated morbidity without reducing vaccination success rates or immune responses. J Infect Dis. 2007 Mar 15;195(6):826–32.
Couch, Robert B., et al. “Reducing the dose of smallpox vaccine reduces vaccine-associated morbidity without reducing vaccination success rates or immune responses.J Infect Dis, vol. 195, no. 6, Mar. 2007, pp. 826–32. Pubmed, doi:10.1086/511828.
Couch RB, Winokur P, Edwards KM, Black S, Atmar RL, Stapleton JT, Kissner JM, Shinefield H, Denny TN, Bybel MJ, Newman FK, Yan L, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Smallpox Vaccine Study Group. Reducing the dose of smallpox vaccine reduces vaccine-associated morbidity without reducing vaccination success rates or immune responses. J Infect Dis. 2007 Mar 15;195(6):826–832.
Journal cover image

Published In

J Infect Dis

DOI

ISSN

0022-1899

Publication Date

March 15, 2007

Volume

195

Issue

6

Start / End Page

826 / 832

Location

United States

Related Subject Headings

  • Variola virus
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Smallpox Vaccine
  • Microbiology
  • Male
  • Humans
  • Female
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • Chorion
  • Chick Embryo