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Heterogeneity of microglial activation in the innate immune response in the brain.

Publication ,  Journal Article
Colton, CA
Published in: J Neuroimmune Pharmacol
December 2009

The immune response in the brain has been widely investigated and while many studies have focused on the proinflammatory cytotoxic response, the brain's innate immune system demonstrates significant heterogeneity. Microglia, like other tissue macrophages, participate in repair and resolution processes after infection or injury to restore normal tissue homeostasis. This review examines the mechanisms that lead to reduction of self-toxicity and to repair and restructuring of the damaged extracellular matrix in the brain. Part of the resolution process involves switching macrophage functional activation to include reduction of proinflammatory mediators, increased production and release of anti-inflammatory cytokines, and production of cytoactive factors involved in repair and reconstruction of the damaged brain. Two partially overlapping and complimentary functional macrophage states have been identified and are called alternative activation and acquired deactivation. The immunosuppressive and repair processes of each of these states and how alternative activation and acquired deactivation participate in chronic neuroinflammation in the brain are discussed.

Duke Scholars

Published In

J Neuroimmune Pharmacol

DOI

EISSN

1557-1904

Publication Date

December 2009

Volume

4

Issue

4

Start / End Page

399 / 418

Location

United States

Related Subject Headings

  • Neurology & Neurosurgery
  • Microglia
  • Immunity, Innate
  • Humans
  • Brain
  • Animals
  • 1115 Pharmacology and Pharmaceutical Sciences
  • 1109 Neurosciences
  • 1107 Immunology
 

Citation

APA
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ICMJE
MLA
NLM
Colton, C. A. (2009). Heterogeneity of microglial activation in the innate immune response in the brain. J Neuroimmune Pharmacol, 4(4), 399–418. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11481-009-9164-4
Colton, Carol A. “Heterogeneity of microglial activation in the innate immune response in the brain.J Neuroimmune Pharmacol 4, no. 4 (December 2009): 399–418. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11481-009-9164-4.
Colton CA. Heterogeneity of microglial activation in the innate immune response in the brain. J Neuroimmune Pharmacol. 2009 Dec;4(4):399–418.
Colton, Carol A. “Heterogeneity of microglial activation in the innate immune response in the brain.J Neuroimmune Pharmacol, vol. 4, no. 4, Dec. 2009, pp. 399–418. Pubmed, doi:10.1007/s11481-009-9164-4.
Colton CA. Heterogeneity of microglial activation in the innate immune response in the brain. J Neuroimmune Pharmacol. 2009 Dec;4(4):399–418.
Journal cover image

Published In

J Neuroimmune Pharmacol

DOI

EISSN

1557-1904

Publication Date

December 2009

Volume

4

Issue

4

Start / End Page

399 / 418

Location

United States

Related Subject Headings

  • Neurology & Neurosurgery
  • Microglia
  • Immunity, Innate
  • Humans
  • Brain
  • Animals
  • 1115 Pharmacology and Pharmaceutical Sciences
  • 1109 Neurosciences
  • 1107 Immunology