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Species specific differences in the in vitro metabolism of the flame retardant mixture, Firemaster® BZ-54.

Publication ,  Journal Article
Bearr, JS; Mitchelmore, CL; Roberts, SC; Stapleton, HM
Published in: Aquatic toxicology (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
November 2012

Firemaster(®) BZ-54 is a flame retardant additive and consists of a brominated benzoate (2-ethylhexyl 2,3,4,5-tetrabromobenzoate; TBB) and a brominated phthalate (bis (2-ethylhexyl) 2,3,4,5-tetrabromophthalate; TBPH). Previous research has shown that fathead minnows exposed in vivo to Firemaster(®) BZ-54 accumulate TBB and TBPH. This study examined the in vitro biotransformation potential of TBB and TBPH in hepatic subcellular fractions (i.e., S9, microsomes and cytosol) in the fathead minnow, common carp, mouse and snapping turtle. Metabolism was evaluated by measuring the loss of the parent TBB or TBPH and identifying potential metabolites in the sample extracts. Metabolic loss of TBPH was measured for all species, while TBB loss was observed for all species except for the snapping turtle. Several metabolites were observed in all of the incubations except for snapping turtle. Metabolites observed appeared to be derived from TBB, given their structures and lack of appearance in the snapping turtle incubations. One of these metabolites, 2,3,4,5-tetrabromomethylbenzoate has been identified for the first time in a biological system. When metabolized, TBB and TBPH loss was found in each subcellular fraction suggesting that the enzyme(s) involved are present in both soluble and membrane-bound forms. It can be concluded that a broad range of species are capable of metabolizing TBB and TBPH to various metabolites and further research should be carried out to ascertain the specific products formed from metabolism of TBB and TBPH.

Duke Scholars

Published In

Aquatic toxicology (Amsterdam, Netherlands)

DOI

EISSN

1879-1514

ISSN

0166-445X

Publication Date

November 2012

Volume

124-125

Start / End Page

41 / 47

Related Subject Headings

  • Turtles
  • Toxicology
  • Species Specificity
  • Phthalic Acids
  • Mice
  • Liver
  • Flame Retardants
  • Cyprinidae
  • Carps
  • Benzoates
 

Citation

APA
Chicago
ICMJE
MLA
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Bearr, J. S., Mitchelmore, C. L., Roberts, S. C., & Stapleton, H. M. (2012). Species specific differences in the in vitro metabolism of the flame retardant mixture, Firemaster® BZ-54. Aquatic Toxicology (Amsterdam, Netherlands), 124125, 41–47. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquatox.2012.06.006
Bearr, Jonathan S., Carys L. Mitchelmore, Simon C. Roberts, and Heather M. Stapleton. “Species specific differences in the in vitro metabolism of the flame retardant mixture, Firemaster® BZ-54.Aquatic Toxicology (Amsterdam, Netherlands) 124–125 (November 2012): 41–47. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquatox.2012.06.006.
Bearr JS, Mitchelmore CL, Roberts SC, Stapleton HM. Species specific differences in the in vitro metabolism of the flame retardant mixture, Firemaster® BZ-54. Aquatic toxicology (Amsterdam, Netherlands). 2012 Nov;124–125:41–7.
Bearr, Jonathan S., et al. “Species specific differences in the in vitro metabolism of the flame retardant mixture, Firemaster® BZ-54.Aquatic Toxicology (Amsterdam, Netherlands), vol. 124–125, Nov. 2012, pp. 41–47. Epmc, doi:10.1016/j.aquatox.2012.06.006.
Bearr JS, Mitchelmore CL, Roberts SC, Stapleton HM. Species specific differences in the in vitro metabolism of the flame retardant mixture, Firemaster® BZ-54. Aquatic toxicology (Amsterdam, Netherlands). 2012 Nov;124–125:41–47.
Journal cover image

Published In

Aquatic toxicology (Amsterdam, Netherlands)

DOI

EISSN

1879-1514

ISSN

0166-445X

Publication Date

November 2012

Volume

124-125

Start / End Page

41 / 47

Related Subject Headings

  • Turtles
  • Toxicology
  • Species Specificity
  • Phthalic Acids
  • Mice
  • Liver
  • Flame Retardants
  • Cyprinidae
  • Carps
  • Benzoates