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Sex differences in developmental reading disability: new findings from 4 epidemiological studies.

Publication ,  Journal Article
Rutter, M; Caspi, A; Fergusson, D; Horwood, LJ; Goodman, R; Maughan, B; Moffitt, TE; Meltzer, H; Carroll, J
Published in: JAMA
April 2004

An influential article published in 1990 claimed that the increased rate of reading disability in boys was a consequence of referral bias.To summarize the history of research on sex differences in reading disability and to provide new evidence from 4 independent epidemiological studies about the nature, extent, and significance of sex differences in reading disability.The Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study comprised 989 individuals (52.1% male) in a cohort born between April 1972 and March 1973 in Dunedin, New Zealand, and followed up from age 3 years; reading performance and IQ were assessed at ages 7, 9, and 11 years using the Burt Word Reading Test and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R), respectively. The Christchurch Health and Development Study comprised 895 individuals (50% male) in a prospectively studied cohort born in the Christchurch, New Zealand, region during a 4-month period in 1977; reading performance and IQ were assessed at ages 8 to 10 years using the Burt Word Reading Test and the WISC-R. The Office for National Statistics (ONS) Study comprised a UK nationally representative sample of 5752 children (50.1% male) aged 9 to 15 years in 1999; reading was assessed on the British Ability Scales II and IQ on the British Picture Vocabulary Scales II. The Environmental Risk Longitudinal Twin Study (E-Risk) comprised 2163 twin children from England and Wales (49.1% male) identified at birth in 1994 and 1995 and included administration of the Test of Word Reading Efficiency at age 7 years and the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised as a test of IQ at age 5 years.Reading performance by sex in the lowest 15% of the distribution for all 4 studies, with and without taking IQ into account.In all 4 studies, the rates of reading disability were significantly higher in boys. For non-IQ-referenced reading disability: Dunedin study, 21.6% in boys vs 7.9% in girls (odds ratio [OR], 3.19; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.15-4.17); Christchurch study, 20.6% in boys vs 9.8% in girls (OR, 2.38; 95% CI, 1.62-3.50); ONS study, 17.6% in boys vs 13.0% in girls (OR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.23-1.65); and E-Risk, 18.0% in boys vs 13.0% in girls (OR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.04-1.86). The rates for IQ-referenced reading disabilities were similar.Reading disabilities are clearly more frequent in boys than in girls.

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Published In

JAMA

DOI

EISSN

1538-3598

ISSN

0098-7484

Publication Date

April 2004

Volume

291

Issue

16

Start / End Page

2007 / 2012

Related Subject Headings

  • Twin Studies as Topic
  • Sex Factors
  • Male
  • Humans
  • General & Internal Medicine
  • Female
  • Epidemiologic Studies
  • Dyslexia
  • Child
  • Aptitude Tests
 

Citation

APA
Chicago
ICMJE
MLA
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Rutter, M., Caspi, A., Fergusson, D., Horwood, L. J., Goodman, R., Maughan, B., … Carroll, J. (2004). Sex differences in developmental reading disability: new findings from 4 epidemiological studies. JAMA, 291(16), 2007–2012. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.291.16.2007
Rutter, Michael, Avshalom Caspi, David Fergusson, L John Horwood, Robert Goodman, Barbara Maughan, Terrie E. Moffitt, Howard Meltzer, and Julia Carroll. “Sex differences in developmental reading disability: new findings from 4 epidemiological studies.JAMA 291, no. 16 (April 2004): 2007–12. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.291.16.2007.
Rutter M, Caspi A, Fergusson D, Horwood LJ, Goodman R, Maughan B, et al. Sex differences in developmental reading disability: new findings from 4 epidemiological studies. JAMA. 2004 Apr;291(16):2007–12.
Rutter, Michael, et al. “Sex differences in developmental reading disability: new findings from 4 epidemiological studies.JAMA, vol. 291, no. 16, Apr. 2004, pp. 2007–12. Epmc, doi:10.1001/jama.291.16.2007.
Rutter M, Caspi A, Fergusson D, Horwood LJ, Goodman R, Maughan B, Moffitt TE, Meltzer H, Carroll J. Sex differences in developmental reading disability: new findings from 4 epidemiological studies. JAMA. 2004 Apr;291(16):2007–2012.
Journal cover image

Published In

JAMA

DOI

EISSN

1538-3598

ISSN

0098-7484

Publication Date

April 2004

Volume

291

Issue

16

Start / End Page

2007 / 2012

Related Subject Headings

  • Twin Studies as Topic
  • Sex Factors
  • Male
  • Humans
  • General & Internal Medicine
  • Female
  • Epidemiologic Studies
  • Dyslexia
  • Child
  • Aptitude Tests