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Investigating a novel flame retardant known as V6: measurements in baby products, house dust, and car dust.

Publication ,  Journal Article
Fang, M; Webster, TF; Gooden, D; Cooper, EM; McClean, MD; Carignan, C; Makey, C; Stapleton, HM
Published in: Environmental science & technology
May 2013

With the phase-out of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants, the use of new and alternate flame retardants has been increasing. 2,2-bis(chloromethyl)propane-1,3-diyltetrakis(2-chloroethyl) bisphosphate, known as V6, is a flame retardant applied to polyurethane foam commonly found in furniture and automobile foam. However, to the authors' knowledge, no research has been conducted on V6 levels in the environment. The intention of this study was to measure the concentration of V6 in foam collected from baby products where it was recently detected and measure levels in dust samples collected from homes and automobiles in the Boston, MA area. To accomplish this, a pure V6 commercial standard was purchased from a Chinese manufacturer and purified (>98%). An analytical method to measure V6 in dust samples using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS-MS) was developed. Extraction was conducted using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) and extracts were purified using an ENVI-Florisil SPE column (500 mg, 3 mL). V6 was measured in foam samples collected from baby products with a concentration ranging from 24,500,000 to 59,500,000 ng/g of foam (n = 12, average ± sd: 46,500,000 ± 12,000,000 ng/g; i.e., on average, 4.6% of the foam mass was V6). V6 was also detected in 19 of 20 car dust samples and 14 of 20 house dust samples analyzed. The concentration of V6 in the house dust ranged from <5 ng/g to 1110 ng/g with a median of 12.5 ng/g, and <5 ng/g to 6160 ng/g in the car dust with a median of 103.0 ng/g. Concentrations in car dust were significantly higher than in the house dust potentially indicating higher use of V6 in automobiles compared to products found in the home. Furthermore, tris (2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), a known carcinogen, was found in the V6 commercial mixture (14% by weight) as an impurity and was consistently detected with V6 in the foam samples analyzed. A significant correlation was also observed between V6 and TCEP in the dust samples suggesting that the use of V6 is a significant source of TCEP in the indoor environment.

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Published In

Environmental science & technology

DOI

EISSN

1520-5851

ISSN

0013-936X

Publication Date

May 2013

Volume

47

Issue

9

Start / End Page

4449 / 4454

Related Subject Headings

  • Tandem Mass Spectrometry
  • Residence Characteristics
  • Motor Vehicles
  • Flame Retardants
  • Environmental Sciences
  • Dust
  • Chromatography, Liquid
 

Citation

APA
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ICMJE
MLA
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Fang, M., Webster, T. F., Gooden, D., Cooper, E. M., McClean, M. D., Carignan, C., … Stapleton, H. M. (2013). Investigating a novel flame retardant known as V6: measurements in baby products, house dust, and car dust. Environmental Science & Technology, 47(9), 4449–4454. https://doi.org/10.1021/es400032v
Fang, Mingliang, Thomas F. Webster, David Gooden, Ellen M. Cooper, Michael D. McClean, Courtney Carignan, Colleen Makey, and Heather M. Stapleton. “Investigating a novel flame retardant known as V6: measurements in baby products, house dust, and car dust.Environmental Science & Technology 47, no. 9 (May 2013): 4449–54. https://doi.org/10.1021/es400032v.
Fang M, Webster TF, Gooden D, Cooper EM, McClean MD, Carignan C, et al. Investigating a novel flame retardant known as V6: measurements in baby products, house dust, and car dust. Environmental science & technology. 2013 May;47(9):4449–54.
Fang, Mingliang, et al. “Investigating a novel flame retardant known as V6: measurements in baby products, house dust, and car dust.Environmental Science & Technology, vol. 47, no. 9, May 2013, pp. 4449–54. Epmc, doi:10.1021/es400032v.
Fang M, Webster TF, Gooden D, Cooper EM, McClean MD, Carignan C, Makey C, Stapleton HM. Investigating a novel flame retardant known as V6: measurements in baby products, house dust, and car dust. Environmental science & technology. 2013 May;47(9):4449–4454.
Journal cover image

Published In

Environmental science & technology

DOI

EISSN

1520-5851

ISSN

0013-936X

Publication Date

May 2013

Volume

47

Issue

9

Start / End Page

4449 / 4454

Related Subject Headings

  • Tandem Mass Spectrometry
  • Residence Characteristics
  • Motor Vehicles
  • Flame Retardants
  • Environmental Sciences
  • Dust
  • Chromatography, Liquid