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Vitamin D deficiency and risk of cardiovascular disease.

Publication ,  Journal Article
Wang, TJ; Pencina, MJ; Booth, SL; Jacques, PF; Ingelsson, E; Lanier, K; Benjamin, EJ; D'Agostino, RB; Wolf, M; Vasan, RS
Published in: Circulation
January 29, 2008

BACKGROUND: Vitamin D receptors have a broad tissue distribution that includes vascular smooth muscle, endothelium, and cardiomyocytes. A growing body of evidence suggests that vitamin D deficiency may adversely affect the cardiovascular system, but data from longitudinal studies are lacking. METHODS AND RESULTS: We studied 1739 Framingham Offspring Study participants (mean age 59 years; 55% women; all white) without prior cardiovascular disease. Vitamin D status was assessed by measuring 25-dihydroxyvitamin D (25-OH D) levels. Prespecified thresholds were used to characterize varying degrees of 25-OH D deficiency (< 15 ng/mL, < 10 ng/mL). Multivariable Cox regression models were adjusted for conventional risk factors. Overall, 28% of individuals had levels < 15 ng/mL, and 9% had levels < 10 ng/mL. During a mean follow-up of 5.4 years, 120 individuals developed a first cardiovascular event. Individuals with 25-OH D < 15 ng/mL had a multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio of 1.62 (95% confidence interval 1.11 to 2.36, P=0.01) for incident cardiovascular events compared with those with 25-OH D > or = 15 ng/mL. This effect was evident in participants with hypertension (hazard ratio 2.13, 95% confidence interval 1.30 to 3.48) but not in those without hypertension (hazard ratio 1.04, 95% confidence interval 0.55 to 1.96). There was a graded increase in cardiovascular risk across categories of 25-OH D, with multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios of 1.53 (95% confidence interval 1.00 to 2.36) for levels 10 to < 15 ng/mL and 1.80 (95% confidence interval 1.05 to 3.08) for levels < 10 ng/mL (P for linear trend=0.01). Further adjustment for C-reactive protein, physical activity, or vitamin use did not affect the findings. CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin D deficiency is associated with incident cardiovascular disease. Further clinical and experimental studies may be warranted to determine whether correction of vitamin D deficiency could contribute to the prevention of cardiovascular disease.

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Published In

Circulation

DOI

EISSN

1524-4539

Publication Date

January 29, 2008

Volume

117

Issue

4

Start / End Page

503 / 511

Location

United States

Related Subject Headings

  • Vitamin D Deficiency
  • Risk Factors
  • Middle Aged
  • Male
  • Longitudinal Studies
  • Incidence
  • Hypertension
  • Humans
  • Female
  • Cardiovascular System & Hematology
 

Citation

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Wang, T. J., Pencina, M. J., Booth, S. L., Jacques, P. F., Ingelsson, E., Lanier, K., … Vasan, R. S. (2008). Vitamin D deficiency and risk of cardiovascular disease. Circulation, 117(4), 503–511. https://doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.107.706127
Wang, Thomas J., Michael J. Pencina, Sarah L. Booth, Paul F. Jacques, Erik Ingelsson, Katherine Lanier, Emelia J. Benjamin, Ralph B. D’Agostino, Myles Wolf, and Ramachandran S. Vasan. “Vitamin D deficiency and risk of cardiovascular disease.Circulation 117, no. 4 (January 29, 2008): 503–11. https://doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.107.706127.
Wang TJ, Pencina MJ, Booth SL, Jacques PF, Ingelsson E, Lanier K, et al. Vitamin D deficiency and risk of cardiovascular disease. Circulation. 2008 Jan 29;117(4):503–11.
Wang, Thomas J., et al. “Vitamin D deficiency and risk of cardiovascular disease.Circulation, vol. 117, no. 4, Jan. 2008, pp. 503–11. Pubmed, doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.107.706127.
Wang TJ, Pencina MJ, Booth SL, Jacques PF, Ingelsson E, Lanier K, Benjamin EJ, D’Agostino RB, Wolf M, Vasan RS. Vitamin D deficiency and risk of cardiovascular disease. Circulation. 2008 Jan 29;117(4):503–511.

Published In

Circulation

DOI

EISSN

1524-4539

Publication Date

January 29, 2008

Volume

117

Issue

4

Start / End Page

503 / 511

Location

United States

Related Subject Headings

  • Vitamin D Deficiency
  • Risk Factors
  • Middle Aged
  • Male
  • Longitudinal Studies
  • Incidence
  • Hypertension
  • Humans
  • Female
  • Cardiovascular System & Hematology