Cyclophosphamide-based hematopoietic stem cell mobilization before autologous stem cell transplantation in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma.

Journal Article (Journal Article)

High-dose cyclophosphamide (Cy) is frequently employed for peripheral blood mobilization of hematopoietic stem cells before high-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) in multiple myeloma (MM). The benefit of mobilization with Cy over filgrastim (granulocyte colony-stimulating factor; G-CSF) alone is unclear. Between 2000 and 2008, 167 patients with newly diagnosed MM underwent single ASCT after melphalan conditioning at our institution. Seventy-three patients were mobilized with G-CSF alone, and 94 patients with Cy plus G-CSF (Cy+G-CSF). We retrospectively analyzed Cy's impact on both toxicity and efficacy. Mobilization efficiency was augmented by Cy; a mean total of 12 versus 5.8 × 10(6) CD34+ cells/kg were collected from patients mobilized with Cy+G-CSF versus G-CSF, respectively, (P < 0.01), over a mean of 1.6 versus 2.2 days of peripheral blood apheresis (p = 0.001). Mobilization-related toxicity was also, however, augmented by Cy; 14% of Cy+G-CSF patients were hospitalized because of complications versus none receiving G-CSF (P < 0.0001). Toxicity, including death, related to ASCT was similar between cohorts. Regarding long-term outcomes, multivariate analysis revealed no difference for Cy+G-CSF versus G-CSF (hazard ratio 0.8 for event-free survival [95% confidence interval {CI} 0.57-1.25] and 0.96 for overall survival [95% CI 0.61-1.54]). In summary, we show that mobilization with Cy increases toxicity without positively impacting long-term outcomes in MM. Our findings place into question Cy's benefit as a routine component of stem cell mobilization regimens in MM. Randomized trials are needed to elucidate the risks and benefits of Cy more definitively.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Tuchman, SA; Bacon, WA; Huang, L-W; Long, G; Rizzieri, D; Horwitz, M; Chute, JP; Sullivan, K; Morris Engemann, A; Yopp, A; Li, Z; Corbet, K; Chao, N; Gasparetto, C

Published Date

  • June 2015

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 30 / 3

Start / End Page

  • 176 - 182

PubMed ID

  • 25293363

Pubmed Central ID

  • PMC4523145

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1098-1101

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1002/jca.21360


  • eng

Conference Location

  • United States