Proteomics and immunohistochemistry identify the expression of α-cardiac myosin heavy chain in the jaw-closing muscles of sooty mangabeys (order Primates).
OBJECTIVE: The jaw-closing muscles of humans and nonprimate mammals express alpha-cardiac fibers but MyHC α-cardiac has not been identified in the jaw adductors of nonhuman primates. We determined whether MyHC α-cardiac is expressed in the superficial masseter and temporalis muscles of the sooty mangabey (Cercocebus atys), an African Old World monkey that specializes on hard seeds. DESIGN: LC-MS/MS based proteomics was used to identify the presence of MyHC Iα. Immunohistochemistry was used to analyze the composition and distribution of fiber types in the superficial masseter and temporalis muscles of eight C. atys. Serial sections were stained against MyHC α-cardiac (MYH6), as well as MyHC-1 (NOQ7.5.4D), MyHC-2 (MY-32), and MyHC-M (2F4). RESULTS: Proteomics analysis identified the presence of Myosin-6 (MyHC α-cardiac) in both heart atrium and superficial masseter. MyHC α-cardiac was expressed in abundance in the superficial masseter and temporalis muscles of all eight individuals and hybrid fibers were common. CONCLUSIONS: The identification of MyHC α-cardiac in the jaw adductors of sooty mangabeys is a novel finding for nonhuman primates. The abundance of MyHC α-cardiac indicates a fatigue-resistant fiber population characterized by intermediate speed of contraction between pure MyHC-1 and MyHC-2 isoforms. We suggest that α-cardiac fibers may be advantageous to sooty mangabeys, whose feeding behavior includes frequent crushing of relatively large, hard seeds during the power stroke of ingestion. Additional studies comparing jaw-adductor fiber phenotype of hard-object feeding primates and other mammals are needed to explore this relationship further.
Wall, CE; Holmes, M; Soderblom, EJ; Taylor, AB
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