Contingency Management Versus Psychotherapy for Prenatal Smoking Cessation: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.
OBJECTIVES: Prenatal smoking is the leading preventable cause of poor obstetric outcomes, yet treatment options are limited. Past reviews of prenatal smoking cessation have often grouped all counseling into a single category, which ignores the fact that psychotherapy is distinct from brief counseling. The objective of this study was to compare the effect sizes of two intensive interventions for prenatal smoking cessation: contingency management (i.e., financial incentives for abstinence) and psychotherapy. METHODS: A systematic search for randomized controlled trials testing the efficacy of contingency management or psychotherapy was completed using PubMed, PsycINFO, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library, and EMBASE. Independent raters extracted data and assessed trials for risk of bias. Treatment effects were analyzed for three times points: late pregnancy, early postpartum, and late postpartum. RESULTS: The search yielded 22 studies, and meta-analytic results indicated that interventions (compared with control groups) generally increased the odds of abstinence. Moderator analyses indicated that intervention type (contingency management vs. psychotherapy) accounted for variability in effect sizes. When comparing treatment type, effects of contingency management interventions were significantly greater than those of psychotherapeutic interventions. Although psychotherapy did not affect smoking abstinence, contingency management interventions had significant treatment effects at all three time points. CONCLUSIONS: Contingency management seems to be a safe and efficacious prenatal smoking cessation treatment. Although psychotherapy alone did not show an effect on prenatal smoking abstinence, future research may seek to combine this approach with contingency management to promote prenatal smoking cessation.
Wilson, SM; Newins, AR; Medenblik, AM; Kimbrel, NA; Dedert, EA; Hicks, TA; Neal, LC; Beckham, JC; Calhoun, PS
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