Replication-Competent NYVAC-KC Yields Improved Immunogenicity to HIV-1 Antigens in Rhesus Macaques Compared to Nonreplicating NYVAC.
As part of the continuing effort to develop an effective HIV vaccine, we generated a poxviral vaccine vector (previously described) designed to improve on the results of the RV144 phase III clinical trial. The construct, NYVAC-KC, is a replication-competent, attenuated recombinant of the vaccinia virus strain NYVAC. NYVAC is a vector that has been used in many previous clinical studies but is replication deficient. Here, we report a side-by-side comparison of replication-restricted NYVAC and replication-competent NYVAC-KC in a nonhuman primate study, which utilized a prime-boost regimen similar to that of RV144. NYVAC-C and NYVAC-C-KC express the HIV-1 antigens gp140, and Gag/Gag-Pol-Nef-derived virus-like particles (VLPs) from clade C and were used as the prime, with recombinant virus plus envelope protein used as the boost. In nearly every T and B cell immune assay against HIV-1, including neutralization and antibody binding, NYVAC-C-KC induced a greater immune response than NYVAC-C, indicating that replication competence in a poxvirus may improve upon the modestly successful regimen used in the RV144 clinical trial.IMPORTANCE Though the RV144 phase III clinical trial showed promise that an effective vaccine against HIV-1 is possible, a successful vaccine will require improvement over the vaccine candidate (ALVAC) used in the RV144 study. With that goal in mind, we have tested in nonhuman primates an attenuated but replication-competent vector, NYVAC-KC, in direct comparison to its parental vector, NYVAC, which is replication restricted in human cells, similar to the ALVAC vector used in RV144. We have utilized a prime-boost regimen for administration of the vaccine candidate that is similar to the one used in the RV144 study. The results of this study indicate that a replication-competent poxvirus vector may improve upon the effectiveness of the RV144 clinical trial vaccine candidate.
Kibler, KV; Asbach, B; Perdiguero, B; García-Arriaza, J; Yates, NL; Parks, R; Stanfield-Oakley, S; Ferrari, G; Montefiori, DC; Tomaras, GD; Roederer, M; Foulds, KE; Forthal, DN; Seaman, MS; Self, S; Gottardo, R; Phogat, S; Tartaglia, J; Barnett, S; Cristillo, AD; Weiss, D; Galmin, L; Ding, S; Heeney, JL; Esteban, M; Wagner, R; Pantaleo, G; Jacobs, BL
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