The modifying effects of social support on psychological outcomes in patients with heart failure.
OBJECTIVE: We examined the modifying effects of social support on depressive symptoms and health-related quality of life (QoL) in patients receiving coping skills training (CST). METHOD: We considered the modifying effects of social support in the Coping Effectively with Heart Failure clinical trial, which randomized 179 heart failure (HF) patients to either 4 months of CST or usual care enhanced by HF education (HFE). CST involved training in specific coping techniques, whereas HFE involved education about HF self-management. Social support was assessed by the Enhancing Recovery in Coronary Heart Disease (ENRICHD) Social Support Inventory, QoL was assessed with the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ), and depression was assessed with the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II). RESULTS: Linear regression models revealed a significant Intervention Group × Baseline Social Support interaction for change in KCCQ total scores (p = .006) and BDI-II scores (p < .001). Participants with low social support assigned to the CST intervention showed large improvements in KCCQ scores (M = 11.2, 95% CI [5.7, 16.8]), whereas low-social-support patients assigned to the HFE controls showed no significant change (M = -0.8, 95% CI [-7.2, 5.6]). Similarly, BDI-II scores in participants with low social support in the CST group showed large reductions (M = -8.7, 95% CI [-11.3, -6.1]) compared with low-social-support HFE participants (M = -3.0, 95% CI [-6.0, -0.1]). CONCLUSIONS: HF patients with low social support benefit substantially from telephone-based CST interventions. Targeting HF patients with low social support for behavioral interventions could prove to be a cost-effective strategy for improving QoL and reducing depression. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).
Blumenthal, JA; Zhu, Y; Koch, GG; Smith, PJ; Watkins, LL; Hinderliter, AL; Hoffman, BM; Rogers, JG; Chang, PP; O'Connor, C; Johnson, KS; Sherwood, A
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