Invasive Mycobacterium abscessus Complex Infection after Cardiac Surgery: Epidemiology, Management, and Clinical Outcomes.
BACKGROUND: We recently mitigated a clonal outbreak of hospital-acquired Mycobacterium abscessus complex (MABC), which included a large cluster of adult patients who developed invasive infection after exposure to heater-cooler units during cardiac surgery. Recent studies have detailed Mycobacterium chimaera infections acquired during cardiac surgery; however, little is known about the epidemiology and clinical courses of cardiac surgery patients with invasive MABC infection. METHODS: We retrospectively collected clinical data on all patients who underwent cardiac surgery at our hospital and subsequently had positive cultures for MABC from 2013-2016. Patients with ventricular assist devices or heart transplants were excluded. We analyzed patient characteristics, antimicrobial therapy, surgical interventions, and clinical outcomes. RESULTS: Ten cardiac surgery patients developed invasive, extrapulmonary infection from M. abscessus subsp. abscessus in an outbreak setting. Median time from presumed inoculation in the operating room to first positive culture was 53 days (interquartile range [IQR], 38-139 days). Disseminated infection was common, and most frequent culture-positive sites were mediastinum (n=7) and blood (n=7). PATIENTS: received a median of 24 weeks (IQR, 5-33 weeks) of combination antimicrobial therapy that included multiple intravenous agents. Six patients required antibiotic changes due to adverse events attributed to amikacin, linezolid, or tigecycline. Eight patients underwent surgical management, and six patients required multiple sternal debridements. Eight patients died within 2 years of diagnosis, including 4 deaths directly attributable to MABC infection. CONCLUSIONS: Despite aggressive medical and surgical management, invasive MABC infection after cardiac surgery caused substantial morbidity and mortality. New treatment strategies are needed, and compliance with infection prevention guidelines remains critical.
Baker, AW; Maziarz, EK; Lewis, SS; Stout, JE; Anderson, DJ; Smith, PK; Schroder, JN; Daneshmand, MA; Alexander, BD; Wallace, RJ; Sexton, DJ; Wolfe, CR
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