Self- and Other-Directed Violence as Outcomes of Deployment-Based Military Sexual Assault in Iraq/Afghanistan-era Veteran Men and Women.
Although military sexual assault (MSA) has been well-established as a risk factor for psychopathology (e.g., PTSD, depression), little research has examined the association between MSA and self- and other-directed violence. Furthermore, there has been a growing empirical focus on potential gender differences in the effects of MSA, but few of these studies have examined gender differences in self- and other-directed violence. In a sample of 1571 Iraq/Afghanistan-era veterans (21.0% women), we examined the effect of MSA on difficulty controlling violent behavior and attempting suicide among veteran men and women, above and beyond the influence of childhood sexual abuse, combat trauma, PTSD, and major depressive disorder. Results of a logistic regression revealed that MSA increased risk of attempting suicide and difficulty controlling violence among women but not men. Thus, the results suggest that MSA may be a risk factor for both types of violence in women. Furthermore, because PTSD was associated with both types of violence in both men and women, MSA may also confer risk of violence via PTSD.
Wilson, LC; Newins, AR; Wilson, SM; Elbogen, EB; Dedert, EA; Calhoun, PS; Beckham, JC; VA Mid-Atlantic MIRECC Workgroup, ; Kimbrel, NA
Volume / Issue
Start / End Page
Pubmed Central ID
International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)