Photoacoustic imaging of in vivo hemodynamic responses to sodium nitroprusside.
The in vivo hemodynamic impact of sodium nitroprusside (SNP), a widely used antihypertensive agent, has not been well studied. Here, we applied functional optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy (OR-PAM) to study the hemodynamic responses to SNP in mice in vivo. As expected, after the application of SNP, the systemic blood pressure (BP) was reduced by 53%. The OR-PAM results show that SNP induced an arterial vasodilation of 24% and 23% in the brain and skin, respectively. A weaker venous vasodilation of 9% and 5% was also observed in the brain and skin, respectively. The results show two different types of blood oxygenation response. In mice with decreased blood oxygenation, the arterial and venous oxygenation was respectively reduced by 6% and 13% in the brain, as well as by 7% and 18% in the skin. In mice with increased blood oxygenation, arterial and venous oxygenation was raised by 4% and 22% in the brain, as well as by 1% and 9% in the skin. We observed venous change clearly lagged the arterial change in the skin, but not in the brain. Our results collectively show a correlation among SNP induced changes in systemic BP, vessel size and blood oxygenation.
Zhang, D; Li, R; Chen, M; Vu, T; Sheng, H; Yang, W; Hoffmann, U; Luo, J; Yao, J
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