Skip to main content

Daniel Oliver Schmitt

Professor in the Department of Evolutionary Anthropology
Evolutionary Anthropology
Duke Box 90383, Durham, NC 27708
203 Biological Sciences Buildi, 130 Science Drive, Durham, NC 27708

Selected Publications


The effect of total ankle arthroplasty on mechanical energy exchange

Journal Article Journal of Biomechanics · February 1, 2024 Total ankle arthroplasty (TAA) is a common surgical solution for patients with debilitating arthritis of the ankle. Prior to surgery patients experience high levels of pain and fatigue and low mechanical energy recovery. It is not known if TAA restores hea ... Full text Cite

Jumping performance in tree squirrels: Insights into primate evolution.

Journal Article J Hum Evol · July 2023 Morphological traits suggesting powerful jumping abilities are characteristic of early crown primate fossils. Because tree squirrels lack certain 'primatelike' grasping features but frequently travel on the narrow terminal branches of trees, they make a vi ... Full text Link to item Cite

Reflections on Presurgical and Postsurgical Gait Mechanics After 50 Years of Total Ankle Arthroplasty and Perspectives on the Next Decade of Advancement.

Journal Article Foot and ankle clinics · March 2023 Although not the most prevalent form of lower limb pathology, ankle arthritis is one of the most painful and life-limiting forms of arthritis. Developing from overuse and various traumatic injuries, the effect of ankle arthritis on gait mechanics and effec ... Full text Cite

Improving Anesthesia Providers' Needle Cricothyrotomy Success With Ultrasound-Guidance: A Cadave Quality Improvement Project.

Journal Article AANA journal · February 2023 Difficult and failed airway management remains a significant cause of anesthesia-related morbidity and mortality. Failed airway management guidelines include performing a cricothyrotomy as a final step. Correct identification of the cricothyroid membrane ( ... Cite

Adaptive locomotion: Foot strike pattern and limb mechanical stiffness while running over an obstacle.

Journal Article Journal of biomechanics · October 2022 Previous studies of level running suggest runners adjust foot strike to control leg stiffness. This study aimed to determine how runners adjusted mechanical stiffness and foot strike prior to, during, and after a drop in surface height. Ten healthy subject ... Full text Cite

Factors contributing to racial differences in gait mechanics differ by sex.

Journal Article Gait & posture · June 2022 BackgroundRacial differences in gait mechanics have been recently reported, but we don't know what factors may drive differences in gait and whether these factors are innate or modifiable. The answers to those questions will inform both basic rese ... Full text Cite

Energetic costs of hindlimb-dominated locomotion in sifakas (Propithecus verreauxi).

Journal Article FASEB J · May 2022 Human bipedal locomotion is unique, requiring a suite of musculoskeletal adaptations that were acquired gradually throughout hominin evolution. For example, lordotic lumbar spines move the center of mass over the hip joint and resists axial compression, sh ... Full text Link to item Cite

Racial differences in running and landing measures associated with injury risk vary by sex

Journal Article Sports Biomechanics · January 1, 2022 It is unknown whether running and landing mechanics differ between racial groups despite injury disparities between African Americans (AA) and white Americans (WA). This study aimed to identify potential racial differences in running and landing mechanics ... Full text Cite

Effects of human variation on foot and ankle pain in rural Madagascar.

Journal Article American journal of physical anthropology · October 2021 ObjectivesFoot and ankle dysfunction in barefoot/minimally shod populations remains understudied. Although factors affecting musculoskeletal pain in Western populations are well-studied, little is known about how types of work, gender, and body sh ... Full text Cite

The effect of ankle osteoarthritis and total ankle arthroplasty on center of pressure position.

Journal Article Journal of orthopaedic research : official publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society · June 2021 Featured Publication Total ankle arthroplasty (TAA) is a common surgical approach for patients with end-stage ankle osteoarthritis (OA). However, very little is known about the path of the center of pressure (COP) of the foot, and thus important aspects of load transfer, muscl ... Full text Cite

Improving Emergency Cricothyroidotomies: Simulation-Based Training for Critical Care Providers.

Journal Article Critical care nursing quarterly · April 2021 This article discusses skill proficiency of providers related to emergency cricothyroidotomies. Various techniques to improve procedural skills were studied. Accurate identification of the cricothyroid membrane via palpation remained consistently inadequat ... Full text Cite

Validity of Using Automated Two-Dimensional Video Analysis to Measure Continuous Sagittal Plane Running Kinematics.

Journal Article Annals of biomedical engineering · January 2021 Featured Publication Two-dimensional video analysis is commonly used to assess kinematics when three-dimensional motion capture is unavailable. However, videos are often assessed using manual digitization, which limits the ability to extract outcomes that require continuous da ... Full text Cite

Sex-Specific Difference in Dynamic Balance Following Total Hip Replacement.

Journal Article Innovation in aging · January 2021 Background and objectivesTotal hip arthroplasty (THA) is a common surgical procedure in older adults (65 years or older). THA has high patient satisfaction, but little is known about balance and mobility limitations after surgery and if outcomes a ... Full text Cite

Racial differences in gait mechanics.

Journal Article Journal of biomechanics · November 2020 Featured Publication The effect of race has rarely been investigated in biomechanics studies despite racial health disparities in the incidence of musculoskeletal injuries and disease, hindering both treatment and assessment of rehabilitation. The purpose of this study was to ... Full text Cite

Mechanics of heel-strike plantigrady in African apes.

Journal Article Journal of human evolution · August 2020 Featured Publication The initiation of a walking step with a heel strike is a defining characteristic of humans and great apes but is rarely found in other mammals. Despite the considerable importance of heel strike to an understanding of human locomotor evolution, no one has ... Full text Cite

A novel method for measuring asymmetry in kinematic and kinetic variables: The normalized symmetry index.

Journal Article Journal of biomechanics · January 2020 Gait and movement asymmetries are important variables for assessing locomotor mechanics in humans and other animals and as a predictor of injury risk and success of clinical interventions. The four indices used most often to assess symmetry are not well de ... Full text Cite

Gaze-behaviors of runners in a natural, urban running environment.

Journal Article PloS one · January 2020 Gaze-tracking techniques have advanced our understanding of visual attention and decision making during walking and athletic events, but little is known about how vision influences behavior during running over common, natural obstacles. This study tested h ... Full text Cite

Hurry Up and Get Out of the Way! Exploring the Limits of Muscle-Based Latch Systems for Power Amplification.

Journal Article Integrative and comparative biology · December 2019 Animals can amplify the mechanical power output of their muscles as they jump to escape predators or strike to capture prey. One mechanism for amplification involves muscle-tendon unit (MT) systems in which a spring element (series elastic element [SEE]) i ... Full text Cite

Gait Analysis Reveals that Total Hip Arthroplasty Increases Power Production in the Hip During Level Walking and Stair Climbing.

Journal Article Clinical orthopaedics and related research · August 2019 Backgroundtotal hip arthroplasty (THA) is associated with decreased pain and improved function, including increased walking speed, but it does not always improve overall joint mechanics during activities of daily living such as level walking and s ... Full text Cite

The mechanical origins of arm-swinging.

Journal Article Journal of human evolution · May 2019 Arm-swinging is a locomotor mode observed only in primates, in which the hindlimbs no longer have a weight bearing function and the forelimbs must propel the body forward and support the entirety of the animal's mass. It has been suggested that the evoluti ... Full text Cite

The effect of total ankle arthroplasty on mechanical energy exchange

Journal Article Journal of Biomechanics · February 1, 2024 Total ankle arthroplasty (TAA) is a common surgical solution for patients with debilitating arthritis of the ankle. Prior to surgery patients experience high levels of pain and fatigue and low mechanical energy recovery. It is not known if TAA restores hea ... Full text Cite

Jumping performance in tree squirrels: Insights into primate evolution.

Journal Article J Hum Evol · July 2023 Morphological traits suggesting powerful jumping abilities are characteristic of early crown primate fossils. Because tree squirrels lack certain 'primatelike' grasping features but frequently travel on the narrow terminal branches of trees, they make a vi ... Full text Link to item Cite

Reflections on Presurgical and Postsurgical Gait Mechanics After 50 Years of Total Ankle Arthroplasty and Perspectives on the Next Decade of Advancement.

Journal Article Foot and ankle clinics · March 2023 Although not the most prevalent form of lower limb pathology, ankle arthritis is one of the most painful and life-limiting forms of arthritis. Developing from overuse and various traumatic injuries, the effect of ankle arthritis on gait mechanics and effec ... Full text Cite

Improving Anesthesia Providers' Needle Cricothyrotomy Success With Ultrasound-Guidance: A Cadave Quality Improvement Project.

Journal Article AANA journal · February 2023 Difficult and failed airway management remains a significant cause of anesthesia-related morbidity and mortality. Failed airway management guidelines include performing a cricothyrotomy as a final step. Correct identification of the cricothyroid membrane ( ... Cite

Adaptive locomotion: Foot strike pattern and limb mechanical stiffness while running over an obstacle.

Journal Article Journal of biomechanics · October 2022 Previous studies of level running suggest runners adjust foot strike to control leg stiffness. This study aimed to determine how runners adjusted mechanical stiffness and foot strike prior to, during, and after a drop in surface height. Ten healthy subject ... Full text Cite

Factors contributing to racial differences in gait mechanics differ by sex.

Journal Article Gait & posture · June 2022 BackgroundRacial differences in gait mechanics have been recently reported, but we don't know what factors may drive differences in gait and whether these factors are innate or modifiable. The answers to those questions will inform both basic rese ... Full text Cite

Energetic costs of hindlimb-dominated locomotion in sifakas (Propithecus verreauxi).

Journal Article FASEB J · May 2022 Human bipedal locomotion is unique, requiring a suite of musculoskeletal adaptations that were acquired gradually throughout hominin evolution. For example, lordotic lumbar spines move the center of mass over the hip joint and resists axial compression, sh ... Full text Link to item Cite

Racial differences in running and landing measures associated with injury risk vary by sex

Journal Article Sports Biomechanics · January 1, 2022 It is unknown whether running and landing mechanics differ between racial groups despite injury disparities between African Americans (AA) and white Americans (WA). This study aimed to identify potential racial differences in running and landing mechanics ... Full text Cite

Effects of human variation on foot and ankle pain in rural Madagascar.

Journal Article American journal of physical anthropology · October 2021 ObjectivesFoot and ankle dysfunction in barefoot/minimally shod populations remains understudied. Although factors affecting musculoskeletal pain in Western populations are well-studied, little is known about how types of work, gender, and body sh ... Full text Cite

The effect of ankle osteoarthritis and total ankle arthroplasty on center of pressure position.

Journal Article Journal of orthopaedic research : official publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society · June 2021 Featured Publication Total ankle arthroplasty (TAA) is a common surgical approach for patients with end-stage ankle osteoarthritis (OA). However, very little is known about the path of the center of pressure (COP) of the foot, and thus important aspects of load transfer, muscl ... Full text Cite

Improving Emergency Cricothyroidotomies: Simulation-Based Training for Critical Care Providers.

Journal Article Critical care nursing quarterly · April 2021 This article discusses skill proficiency of providers related to emergency cricothyroidotomies. Various techniques to improve procedural skills were studied. Accurate identification of the cricothyroid membrane via palpation remained consistently inadequat ... Full text Cite

Validity of Using Automated Two-Dimensional Video Analysis to Measure Continuous Sagittal Plane Running Kinematics.

Journal Article Annals of biomedical engineering · January 2021 Featured Publication Two-dimensional video analysis is commonly used to assess kinematics when three-dimensional motion capture is unavailable. However, videos are often assessed using manual digitization, which limits the ability to extract outcomes that require continuous da ... Full text Cite

Sex-Specific Difference in Dynamic Balance Following Total Hip Replacement.

Journal Article Innovation in aging · January 2021 Background and objectivesTotal hip arthroplasty (THA) is a common surgical procedure in older adults (65 years or older). THA has high patient satisfaction, but little is known about balance and mobility limitations after surgery and if outcomes a ... Full text Cite

Racial differences in gait mechanics.

Journal Article Journal of biomechanics · November 2020 Featured Publication The effect of race has rarely been investigated in biomechanics studies despite racial health disparities in the incidence of musculoskeletal injuries and disease, hindering both treatment and assessment of rehabilitation. The purpose of this study was to ... Full text Cite

Mechanics of heel-strike plantigrady in African apes.

Journal Article Journal of human evolution · August 2020 Featured Publication The initiation of a walking step with a heel strike is a defining characteristic of humans and great apes but is rarely found in other mammals. Despite the considerable importance of heel strike to an understanding of human locomotor evolution, no one has ... Full text Cite

A novel method for measuring asymmetry in kinematic and kinetic variables: The normalized symmetry index.

Journal Article Journal of biomechanics · January 2020 Gait and movement asymmetries are important variables for assessing locomotor mechanics in humans and other animals and as a predictor of injury risk and success of clinical interventions. The four indices used most often to assess symmetry are not well de ... Full text Cite

Gaze-behaviors of runners in a natural, urban running environment.

Journal Article PloS one · January 2020 Gaze-tracking techniques have advanced our understanding of visual attention and decision making during walking and athletic events, but little is known about how vision influences behavior during running over common, natural obstacles. This study tested h ... Full text Cite

Hurry Up and Get Out of the Way! Exploring the Limits of Muscle-Based Latch Systems for Power Amplification.

Journal Article Integrative and comparative biology · December 2019 Animals can amplify the mechanical power output of their muscles as they jump to escape predators or strike to capture prey. One mechanism for amplification involves muscle-tendon unit (MT) systems in which a spring element (series elastic element [SEE]) i ... Full text Cite

Gait Analysis Reveals that Total Hip Arthroplasty Increases Power Production in the Hip During Level Walking and Stair Climbing.

Journal Article Clinical orthopaedics and related research · August 2019 Backgroundtotal hip arthroplasty (THA) is associated with decreased pain and improved function, including increased walking speed, but it does not always improve overall joint mechanics during activities of daily living such as level walking and s ... Full text Cite

The mechanical origins of arm-swinging.

Journal Article Journal of human evolution · May 2019 Arm-swinging is a locomotor mode observed only in primates, in which the hindlimbs no longer have a weight bearing function and the forelimbs must propel the body forward and support the entirety of the animal's mass. It has been suggested that the evoluti ... Full text Cite

Limb phase flexibility in walking: A test case in the squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus)

Journal Article Frontiers in Zoology · February 18, 2019 Background: Previous analyses of factors influencing footfall timings and gait selection in quadrupeds have focused on the implications for energetic cost or gait mechanics separately. Here we present a model for symmetrical walking gaits in quadrupedal ma ... Full text Cite

Pitch control and speed limitation during overground deceleration in lemurid primates.

Journal Article Journal of morphology · February 2019 An animal's fitness is influenced by the ability to move safely through its environment. Recent models have shown that aspects of body geometry, for example, limb length and center of mass (COM) position, appear to set limits for pitch control in cursorial ... Full text Cite

Comparison of spatiotemporal gait characteristics between vertical climbing and horizontal walking in primates.

Journal Article The Journal of experimental biology · January 2019 During quadrupedal walking, most primates utilize diagonal-sequence diagonal-couplet gaits, large limb excursions and hindlimb-biased limb loading. These gait characteristics are thought to be basal to primates, but the selective pressure underlying these ... Full text Cite

Do forelimb shape and peak forces co-vary in strepsirrhines?

Journal Article American journal of physical anthropology · November 2018 ObjectivesIn this study, we explore whether ground reaction forces recorded during horizontal walking co-vary with the shape of the long bones of the forelimb in strepsirrhines. To do so, we quantify (1) the shape of the shaft and articular surfac ... Full text Cite

Effects of aging on the biomechanics of Coquerel's sifaka (Propithecus coquereli): Evidence of robustness to senescence.

Journal Article Experimental gerontology · October 2018 It is well-known that as humans age they experience significant changes in gait including reduction in velocity and ground reaction forces and changes in leg mechanics. Progressive changes in gait can lead to disability and frailty, defined as an inability ... Full text Cite

Gender and limb differences in temporal gait parameters and gait variability in ankle osteoarthritis.

Journal Article Gait & posture · September 2018 BACKGROUND:The effects of ankle osteoarthritis on gait are noticeable in the clinic, but are difficult to quantify and score without detailed kinematic and kinetic analysis. Evaluationof temporal gait parameters and gait variability is a potential alternat ... Full text Cite

Ontogenetic changes in foot strike pattern and calcaneal loading during walking in young children.

Journal Article Gait & posture · January 2018 The assumption that the morphology of the human calcaneus reflects high and cyclical impact forces at heel strike during adult human walking has never been experimentally tested. Since a walking step with a heel strike is an emergent behavior in children, ... Full text Open Access Cite

Mechanisms for the functional differentiation of the propulsive and braking roles of the forelimbs and hindlimbs during quadrupedal walking in primates and felines.

Journal Article The Journal of experimental biology · January 2018 During quadrupedal walking in most animals, the forelimbs play a net braking role, whereas the hindlimbs are net propulsive. However, the mechanism by which this differentiation occurs remains unclear. Here, we test two models to explain this pattern using ... Full text Open Access Cite

Are There Differences in Gait Mechanics in Patients With A Fixed Versus Mobile Bearing Total Ankle Arthroplasty? A Randomized Trial.

Journal Article Clin Orthop Relat Res · October 2017 BACKGROUND: Total ankle arthroplasty (TAA) is an alternative to arthrodesis, but no randomized trial has examined whether a fixed bearing or mobile bearing implant provides improved gait mechanics. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: We wished to determine if fixed- or mo ... Full text Link to item Cite

The evolution of vertical climbing in primates: evidence from reaction forces.

Journal Article The Journal of experimental biology · September 2017 Vertical climbing is an essential behavior for arboreal animals, yet limb mechanics during climbing are poorly understood and rarely compared with those observed during horizontal walking. Primates commonly engage in both arboreal walking and vertical clim ... Full text Cite

Forelimb and hind limb loading patterns during below branch quadrupedal locomotion in the two-toed sloth

Journal Article Journal of Zoology · August 1, 2017 The living sloths are the most suspensory of all extant mammals, and therefore represent ideal models for investigating the effects that suspensory behaviours have on bone and joint morphology. While the anatomy and kinematics of sloths are well known, no ... Full text Cite

Functional associations between support use and forelimb shape in strepsirrhines and their relevance to inferring locomotor behavior in early primates.

Journal Article Journal of human evolution · July 2017 The evolution of primates is intimately linked to their initial invasion of an arboreal environment. However, moving and foraging in this milieu creates significant mechanical challenges related to the presence of substrates differing in their size and ori ... Full text Cite

Pelvic Breadth and Locomotor Kinematics in Human Evolution.

Journal Article Anatomical record (Hoboken, N.J. : 2007) · April 2017 A broad pelvis is characteristic of most, if not all, pre-modern hominins. In at least some early australopithecines, most notably the female Australopithecus afarensis specimen known as "Lucy," it is very broad and coupled with very short lower limbs. In ... Full text Cite

Mechanisms for regulating step length while running towards and over an obstacle.

Journal Article Human movement science · October 2016 The ability to run across uneven terrain with continuous stable movement is critical to the safety and efficiency of a runner. Successful step-to-step stabilization while running may be mediated by minor adjustments to a few key parameters (e.g., leg stiff ... Full text Cite

Hip, Knee, and Ankle Osteoarthritis Negatively Affects Mechanical Energy Exchange.

Journal Article Clinical orthopaedics and related research · September 2016 BackgroundIndividuals with osteoarthritis (OA) of the lower limb find normal locomotion tiring compared with individuals without OA, possibly because OA of any lower limb joint changes limb mechanics and may disrupt transfer of potential and kinet ... Full text Cite

Ontogenetic scaling of fore limb and hind limb joint posture and limb bone cross-sectional geometry in vervets and baboons.

Journal Article American journal of physical anthropology · September 2016 ObjectivesPrevious studies suggest that the postures habitually adopted by an animal influence the mechanical loading of its long bones. Relatively extended limb postures in larger animals should preferentially reduce anteroposterior (A-P) relativ ... Full text Cite

Patterns, variability, and flexibility of hand posture during locomotion in primates.

Chapter · August 10, 2016 Labeling the primate hand as “primitive” can seem counterintuitive given the remarkable dexterity typical of primates and especially humans. In addition, there is considerable diversity in primate hand form and use that allows the exploitation of . ... Link to item Cite

Patterns of quadrupedal locomotion in a vertical clinging and leaping primate (Propithecus coquereli) with implications for understanding the functional demands of primate quadrupedal locomotion.

Journal Article American journal of physical anthropology · August 2016 ObjectivesMany primates exhibit a suite of characteristics that distinguish their quadrupedal gaits from non-primate mammals including the use of a diagonal sequence gait, a relatively protracted humerus at touchdown, and relatively high peak vert ... Full text Cite

Gait kinetics of above- and below-branch quadrupedal locomotion in lemurid primates.

Journal Article The Journal of experimental biology · January 2016 For primates and other mammals moving on relatively thin branches, the ability to effectively adopt both above- and below-branch locomotion is seen as critical for successful arboreal locomotion, and has been considered an important step prior to the evolu ... Full text Cite

Single-limb force data for two lemur species while vertically clinging.

Journal Article American journal of physical anthropology · November 2015 ObjectivesVertical clinging and climbing have been integral to hypotheses about primate origins, yet little is known about how an animal with nails instead of claws resists gravity while on large, vertical, and cylindrical substrates. Here we test ... Full text Cite

Effect of end-stage hip, knee, and ankle osteoarthritis on walking mechanics.

Journal Article Gait & posture · September 2015 This study tested the hypothesis that the presence of isolated ankle (A-OA; N=30), knee (K-OA; N=20), or hip (H-OA; N=30) osteoarthritis (OA) compared to asymptomatic controls (N=15) would lead to mechanical changes in the affected joint but also in all ot ... Full text Cite

Vibrating Frequency Thresholds in Mice and Rats: Implications for the Effects of Vibrations on Animal Health.

Journal Article Ann Biomed Eng · August 2015 Vibrations in research facilities can cause complex animal behavioral and physiological responses that can affect animal health and research outcomes. The goal of this study was to determine the range of frequency values, where animals are unable to attenu ... Full text Link to item Cite

Kinetics of bipedal locomotion during load carrying in capuchin monkeys.

Journal Article Journal of human evolution · August 2015 Facultative bipedalism during load transport in nonhuman primates has been argued to be an important behavior potentially leading to the evolution of obligate, extended limb bipedalism. Understanding the biomechanics of such behavior may lead to insights a ... Full text Cite

Characteristics of Vibration that Alter Cardiovascular Parameters in Mice.

Journal Article J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci · July 2015 We hypothesized that short-term exposure of mice to vibration within a frequency range thought to be near the resonant frequency range of mouse tissue and at an acceleration of 0 to 1 m/s(2) would alter heart rate (HR) and mean arterial pressure (MAP). We ... Link to item Cite

The evolution of the human pelvis: changing adaptations to bipedalism, obstetrics and thermoregulation.

Journal Article Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences · March 2015 The fossil record of the human pelvis reveals the selective priorities acting on hominin anatomy at different points in our evolutionary history, during which mechanical requirements for locomotion, childbirth and thermoregulation often conflicted. In our ... Full text Cite

Understanding the evolution of the windlass mechanism of the human foot from comparative anatomy: Insights, obstacles, and future directions.

Journal Article American journal of physical anthropology · January 2015 Humans stand alone from other primates in that we propel our bodies forward on a relatively stiff and arched foot and do so by employing an anatomical arrangement of bones and ligaments in the foot that can operate like a "windlass." This is a significant ... Full text Cite

Dynamics of locomotor transitions from arboreal to terrestrial substrates in Verreaux's sifaka (Propithecus verreauxi).

Journal Article Integrative and comparative biology · December 2014 Most primates are able to move with equal facility on the ground and in trees, but most use the same quadrupedal gaits in both environments. A few specialized primates, however, use a suspensory or leaping mode of locomotion when in the trees but a bipedal ... Full text Cite

Lumbar vertebral morphology of flying, gliding, and suspensory mammals: implications for the locomotor behavior of the subfossil lemurs Palaeopropithecus and Babakotia.

Journal Article Journal of human evolution · October 2014 Lumbar vertebral morphology has been used as an indicator of locomotor behavior in living and fossil mammals. Rigidity within the lumbar region is thought to be important for increasing overall axial rigidity during various forms of locomotion, including b ... Full text Cite

Energy recovery in individuals with knee osteoarthritis.

Journal Article Osteoarthritis Cartilage · June 2014 OBJECTIVE: Pathological gaits have been shown to limit transfer between potential (PE) and kinetic (KE) energy during walking, which can increase locomotor costs. The purpose of this study was to examine whether energy exchange would be limited in people w ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Functional and evolutionary aspects of axial stability in euarchontans and other mammals.

Journal Article Journal of morphology · March 2014 The presence of a stable thoracolumbar region, found in many arboreal mammals, is considered advantageous for bridging and cantilevering between discontinuous branches. However, no study has directly explored the link between osteological features cited as ... Full text Cite

Life-long caloric restriction does not alter the severity of age-related osteoarthritis.

Journal Article Age (Dordr) · 2014 Chronic adipose tissue inflammation and its associated adipokines have been linked to the development of osteoarthritis (OA). It has been shown that caloric restriction may decrease body mass index and adiposity. The objectives of this study were to invest ... Full text Link to item Cite

An investigation of the dynamic relationship between navicular drop and first metatarsophalangeal joint dorsal excursion.

Journal Article Journal of anatomy · June 2013 The modern human foot is a complex biomechanical structure that must act both as a shock absorber and as a propulsive strut during the stance phase of gait. Understanding the ways in which foot segments interact can illuminate the mechanics of foot functio ... Full text Cite

Pain coping skills training and lifestyle behavioral weight management in patients with knee osteoarthritis: a randomized controlled study.

Journal Article Pain · June 2012 Overweight and obese patients with osteoarthritis (OA) experience more OA pain and disability than patients who are not overweight. This study examined the long-term efficacy of a combined pain coping skills training (PCST) and lifestyle behavioral weight ... Full text Link to item Cite

The gaits of primates: center of mass mechanics in walking, cantering and galloping ring-tailed lemurs, Lemur catta.

Journal Article The Journal of experimental biology · May 2012 Most primates, including lemurs, have a broad range of locomotor capabilities, yet much of the time, they walk at slow speeds and amble, canter or gallop at intermediate and fast speeds. Although numerous studies have investigated limb function during prim ... Full text Cite

Kinematic and dynamic gait compensations resulting from knee instability in a rat model of osteoarthritis.

Journal Article Arthritis Res Ther · April 17, 2012 INTRODUCTION: Osteoarthritis (OA) results in pain and disability; however, preclinical OA models often focus on joint-level changes. Gait analysis is one method used to evaluate both preclinical OA models and OA patients. The objective of this study is to ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Positional Behavior of Delacour's Langurs (Trachypithecus delacouri) in Northern Vietnam

Journal Article International Journal of Primatology · January 1, 2012 Information on positional behavior can help elucidate relationships between a species' morphology, behavior, and environment. Delacour's langurs (Trachypithecus delacouri) are similar to other colobines in body mass and intermembral index, yet inhabit a li ... Full text Cite

Kinematic and dynamic gait compensations in a rat model of lumbar radiculopathy and the effects of tumor necrosis factor-alpha antagonism.

Journal Article Arthritis Res Ther · August 26, 2011 INTRODUCTION: Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) has received significant attention as a mediator of lumbar radiculopathy, with interest in TNF antagonism to treat radiculopathy. Prior studies have demonstrated that TNF antagonists can attenuate heightened noc ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Locomotor energetics in primates: gait mechanics and their relationship to the energetics of vertical and horizontal locomotion.

Journal Article American journal of physical anthropology · May 2011 All primates regularly move within three-dimensional arboreal environments and must often climb, but little is known about the energetic costs of this critical activity. Limited previous work on the energetics of incline locomotion suggests that there may ... Full text Cite

Interpreting the Role of Climbing in Primate Locomotor Evolution: Are the Biomechanics of Climbing Influenced by Habitual Substrate Use and Anatomy?

Journal Article International Journal of Primatology · April 1, 2011 Vertical climbing is widely accepted to have played an important role in the origins of both primate locomotion and of human bipedalism. Yet, only a few researchers have compared climbing mechanics in quadrupedal primates that vary in their degree of arbor ... Full text Cite

The Scaling of Postural Mechanics in Felidae and Artiodactyla

Conference INTEGRATIVE AND COMPARATIVE BIOLOGY · March 1, 2011 Link to item Cite

Comparative Triceps Surae Morphology in Primates: A Review

Journal Article Anatomy Research International · 2011 Full text Link to item Cite

The relationship between bone mechanical properties and ground reaction forces in normal and hypermuscular mice.

Journal Article Journal of experimental zoology. Part A, Ecological genetics and physiology · July 2010 Understanding the relationship between external load and bone morphology is critical for understanding adaptations to load in extant animals and inferring behavior in extinct forms. Yet, the relationship between bony anatomy and load is poorly understood, ... Full text Cite

Hand and foot pressures in the aye-aye (Daubentonia madagascariensis) reveal novel biomechanical trade-offs required for walking on gracile digits.

Journal Article The Journal of experimental biology · May 2010 Arboreal animals with prehensile hands must balance the complex demands of bone strength, grasping and manipulation. An informative example of this problem is that of the aye-aye (Daubentonia madagascariensis), a rare lemuriform primate that is unusual in ... Full text Open Access Cite

Primate Locomotor Evolution: Biomechanical Studies of Primate Locomotion and Their Implications for Understanding Primate Neuroethology

Journal Article · February 1, 2010 This chapter argues that primates (including humans) show patterns of locomotion and locomotor control that are different from all other mammals. Changes in limb function associated with the adaptive diversification of locomotor patterns in the primate cla ... Full text Cite

Brief communication: Forelimb compliance in arboreal and terrestrial opossums.

Journal Article American journal of physical anthropology · January 2010 Primates display high forelimb compliance (increased elbow joint yield) compared to most other mammals. Forelimb compliance, which is especially marked among arboreal primates, moderates vertical oscillations of the body and peak vertical forces and may re ... Full text Cite

Racial differences in gait mechanics associated with knee osteoarthritis.

Journal Article Aging Clin Exp Res · December 2009 BACKGROUND AND AIMS: This study examines racial differences in gait mechanics in persons with knee osteoarthritis and the influence of anthropometrics, educational level, radiographic disease severity (rOA), and self-report measures of pain and disability ... Full text Link to item Cite

The relationship of self-reported pain and functional impairment to gait mechanics in overweight and obese persons with knee osteoarthritis.

Journal Article Arch Phys Med Rehabil · November 2009 OBJECTIVE: To examine the degree to which 2 commonly used measures of pain and disability, the Arthritis Impact Measurement Scales (AIMS) and the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), relate to objective gait measurements. ... Full text Link to item Cite

Independent evolution of knuckle-walking in African apes shows that humans did not evolve from a knuckle-walking ancestor.

Journal Article Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America · August 2009 Despite decades of debate, it remains unclear whether human bipedalism evolved from a terrestrial knuckle-walking ancestor or from a more generalized, arboreal ape ancestor. Proponents of the knuckle-walking hypothesis focused on the wrist and hand to find ... Full text Cite

Pain catastrophizing and pain-related fear in osteoarthritis patients: relationships to pain and disability.

Journal Article J Pain Symptom Manage · May 2009 This study examined the degree to which pain catastrophizing and pain-related fear explain pain, psychological disability, physical disability, and walking speed in patients with osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. Participants in this study were 106 individu ... Full text Link to item Cite

Sex differences in biomechanics associated with knee osteoarthritis.

Journal Article J Women Aging · 2009 Osteoarthritis of the knee is seen more frequently in females than males. However, few studies have examined the interplay of gender, gait mechanics, pain, and disability in persons with osteoarthritis. This study examines the influence of anthropometrics, ... Full text Link to item Cite

Arthritis self-efficacy and self-efficacy for resisting eating: relationships to pain, disability, and eating behavior in overweight and obese individuals with osteoarthritic knee pain.

Journal Article Pain · June 2008 This study examined arthritis self-efficacy and self-efficacy for resisting eating as predictors of pain, disability, and eating behaviors in overweight or obese patients with osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. Patients (N=174) with a body mass index between ... Full text Link to item Cite

The energetic cost of climbing in primates.

Journal Article Science (New York, N.Y.) · May 2008 Primates are exceptional among mammals for their climbing abilities and arboreal lifestyles. Here we show that small primates (less than 0.5 kilogram) consume the same amount of mass-specific energy (COTTOT) whether climbing or walking a given distance. CO ... Full text Cite

Whole body mechanics of stealthy walking in cats.

Journal Article PloS one · January 2008 The metabolic cost associated with locomotion represents a significant part of an animal's metabolic energy budget. Therefore understanding the ways in which animals manage the energy required for locomotion by controlling muscular effort is critical to un ... Full text Open Access Cite

Primate gaits and primate origins

Journal Article · December 1, 2007 Full text Cite

Origins of grasping and locomotor adaptations in primates: Comparative and experimental approaches using an opossum model

Journal Article · December 1, 2007 Since the turn of the 20th century, most anthropologists agreed on one fundamental notion: the origin and evolution of the order Primates was closely tied with life in the trees. This view is founded on the obvious observation that the vast majority of ext ... Full text Cite

Quantitative measurement of postural sway in mouse models of human neurodegenerative disease.

Journal Article Neuroscience · September 21, 2007 Detection of motor dysfunction in genetic mouse models of neurodegenerative disease requires reproducible, standardized and sensitive behavioral assays. We have utilized a center of pressure (CoP) assay in mice to quantify postural sway produced by genetic ... Full text Link to item Cite

Forelimb and hindlimb forces in walking and galloping primates.

Journal Article American journal of physical anthropology · August 2006 One trait that distinguishes the walking gaits of most primates from those of most mammalian nonprimates is the distribution of weight between the forelimbs and hindlimbs. Nonprimate mammals generally experience higher vertical peak substrate reaction forc ... Full text Cite

Adaptive value of ambling gaits in primates and other mammals.

Journal Article The Journal of experimental biology · June 2006 At speeds between the walk and the gallop, most mammals trot. Primates almost never trot, and it has been claimed that they transition directly from a walk to a gallop without any distinctive mid-speed running gait. If true, this would be another character ... Full text Cite

Technical note: out-of-plane angular correction based on a trigonometric function for use in two-dimensional kinematic studies.

Journal Article American journal of physical anthropology · March 2006 In two-dimensional (2D) kinematic studies, limb positions in three-dimensional (3D) space observed in lateral view are projected onto a 2D film plane. Elbow and knee-joint angles that are less than 20 degrees out-of-plane of lateral-view cameras generally ... Full text Cite

Force plate for measuring the ground reaction forces in small animal locomotion.

Journal Article Journal of biomechanics · January 2006 The importance of kinetic force plate studies of locomotion in small animals has grown recently with the increasing use of rodent models for studies of musculoskeletal diseases. However, the force plates for use with animals much smaller than a cat are dif ... Full text Cite

Mechanical energy and effective foot mass during impact loading of walking and running.

Journal Article Journal of biomechanics · July 2005 The human heel pad is considered an important structure for attenuation of the transient force caused by heel-strike. Although the mechanical properties of heel pads are relatively well understood, the mechanical energy (Etot) absorbed by the heel pad duri ... Full text Cite

Role of the prehensile tail during ateline locomotion: experimental and osteological evidence.

Journal Article American journal of physical anthropology · April 2005 The dynamic role of the prehensile tail of atelines during locomotion is poorly understood. While some have viewed the tail of Ateles simply as a safety mechanism, others have suggested that the prehensile tail plays an active role by adjusting pendulum le ... Full text Cite

New technique for studying reaction forces during primate behaviors on vertical substrates.

Journal Article American journal of physical anthropology · December 2004 Recording reaction forces from primates during behaviors on vertical substrates, such as leaping, climbing, or biting trees, typically requires the design and construction of customized recording devices or mounting commercially available force platforms i ... Full text Cite

Locomotor mechanics of the slender loris (Loris tardigradus).

Journal Article Journal of human evolution · July 2004 The quadrupedal walking gaits of most primates can be distinguished from those of most other mammals by the presence of diagonal-sequence (DS) footfall patterns and higher peak vertical forces on the hindlimbs compared to the forelimbs. The walking gait of ... Full text Cite

Seasonal variation in body mass and locomotor kinetics of the fat-tailed dwarf lemur (Cheirogaleus medius).

Journal Article Journal of morphology · April 2004 The fat-tailed dwarf lemur (Cheirogaleus medius) is unusual among primates in storing large amounts of fat subcutaneously prior to hibernating during the winter months. In doing so, it increases its body mass by more than 50%, with a substantial weight gai ... Full text Cite

Substrate alters forelimb to hindlimb peak force ratios in primates.

Journal Article Journal of human evolution · March 2004 It is often claimed that the walking gaits of primates are unusual because, unlike most other mammals, primates appear to have higher vertical peak ground reaction forces on their hindlimbs than on their forelimbs. Many researchers have argued that this pa ... Full text Cite

Substrate alters forelimb to hindlimb peak force ratios on primates

Journal Article Journal of Human Evolution · 2004 Cite

Locomotor mechanics of the slender loris.

Journal Article Journal of Human Evolution · 2004 Cite

The paleobiology of Amphipithecidae, South Asian late Eocene primates.

Journal Article Journal of human evolution · January 2004 Analysis of the teeth, orbital, and gnathic regions of the skull, and fragmentary postcranial bones provides evidence for reconstructing a behavioral profile of Amphipithecidae: Pondaungia, Amphipithecus, Myanmarpithecus (late middle Eocene, Myanmar) and S ... Full text Cite

Substrate Size Primate Forelimb Mechanics: Implications for Understanding the Evolution of Primate Locomotion

Journal Article International Journal of Primatology · October 1, 2003 Did the anatomical and locomotor specializations of primates evolve in response to requirements of locomotion and foraging on thin branches? Laboratory studies of primates and other mammals provide data suggesting that as substrate size decreases primates ... Full text Cite

Evolutionary implications of the unusual walking mechanics of the common marmoset (C. jacchus).

Journal Article American journal of physical anthropology · September 2003 Several features that appear to differentiate the walking gaits of most primates from those of most other mammals (the prevalence of diagonal-sequence footfalls, high degrees of humeral protraction, and low forelimb vs. hindlimb peak vertical forces) are b ... Full text Cite

Footfall patterns and interlimb co-ordination in opossums (Family Didelphidae): Evidence for the evolution of diagonal-sequence walking gaits in primates

Journal Article Journal of Zoology · August 1, 2003 Most primates typically use a diagonal-sequence footfall pattern during walking. This footfall pattern, which is unusual for mammals, is believed to have originated in ancestral primates in association with the use of grasping extremities for movement and ... Full text Cite

Insights into the evolution of human bipedalism from experimental studies of humans and other primates.

Journal Article The Journal of experimental biology · May 2003 An understanding of the evolution of human bipedalism can provide valuable insights into the biomechanical and physiological characteristics of locomotion in modern humans. The walking gaits of humans, other bipeds and most quadrupedal mammals can best be ... Full text Cite

Experimental evidence concerning spear use in Neandertals and early modern humans

Journal Article Journal of Archaeological Science · January 1, 2003 Can a bimanual activity such as thrusting a spear during hunting produce bilateral asymmetries in the strength of the upper limbs? This question is important to arguments about the predatory capabilities of Neandertals and early modern humans. To address t ... Full text Cite

Mediolateral reaction forces and forelimb anatomy in quadrupedal primates: implications for interpreting locomotor behavior in fossil primates.

Journal Article Journal of human evolution · January 2003 The forelimb joints of terrestrial primate quadrupeds appear better able to resist mediolateral (ML) shear forces than those of arboreal quadrupedal monkeys. These differences in forelimb morphology have been used extensively to infer locomotor behavior in ... Full text Cite

Support polygons and symmetrical gaits in mammals

Journal Article Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society · November 1, 2002 The symmetrical gaits of quadrupedal mammals are often described in terms of two variables: duty factor (S = the stance period of one foot, as a percentage of the gait cycle) and diagonality (D = the percentage of the cycle period by which the left hind fo ... Full text Cite

Origins of primate locomotion: gait mechanics of the woolly opossum.

Journal Article American journal of physical anthropology · July 2002 The locomotion of primates differs from that of other mammals in three fundamental ways. During quadrupedal walking, primates use diagonal sequence gaits, protract their arms more at forelimb touchdown, and experience lower vertical substrate reaction forc ... Full text Cite

Hand and body position during locomotor behavior in the aye-aye (Daubentonia madagascariensis).

Journal Article American journal of primatology · July 2002 Aye-ayes (Daubentonia madagascariensis) have unique hands among primates, with extraordinarily long fingers in relation to body size. These long digits may be vulnerable to damage from forces during locomotion, particularly during head-first descent-a loco ... Full text Cite

Experimental evidence concerning spear use in Neandertals and early modern humans.

Journal Article Journal of Archaeological Sciences · 2002 Cite

Limb excursion during quadrupedal walking: How do primates compare to other mammals?

Journal Article Journal of Zoology · November 20, 2001 Primate quadrupeds are said to use relatively large limb excursions for mammals of their body size. Until recently, this claim was based on a comparison of hindlimb excursion data derived from small samples of primates and non-primates. Using video recordi ... Full text Cite

Uniqueness of primate forelimb posture during quadrupedal locomotion.

Journal Article American journal of physical anthropology · May 2000 Among the characteristics that are thought to set primate quadrupedal locomotion apart from that of nonprimate mammals are a more protracted limb posture and larger limb angular excursion. However, kinematic aspects of primate or nonprimate quadrupedal loc ... Full text Cite

Compliant walking in primates

Journal Article Journal of Zoology · June 1, 1999 It is now well recognized that terrestrial mammals can maintain equivalent bone stresses despite dramatic differences in body size through the adoption of extended limb positions during locomotion. However, this dynamic solution is not available to all mam ... Full text Cite

Pendular motion in the brachiation of captive Lagothrix and Ateles.

Journal Article American journal of primatology · January 1999 Pendular motion during brachiation of captive Lagothrix lagothricha lugens and Ateles fusciceps robustus was analyzed to demonstrate similarities, and differences, between these two closely related large bodied atelines. This is the first captive study of ... Full text Cite

EMG of the human flexor pollicis longus muscle: implications for the evolution of hominid tool use.

Journal Article Journal of human evolution · February 1998 Modern humans possess a distinct and well-developed flexor pollicis longus muscle, an extrinsic thumb flexor which is "either rudimentary or absent" in great apes (Straus, 1942, p. 228). Previous workers (e.g., Napier, 1962; Susman, 1988) have related the ... Full text Cite

The relation between hand morphology and quadrupedalism in primates

Journal Article American Journal of Physical Anthropology · 1998 Primate hands can be classified into two broad categories on the basis of ray proportions and other features. Ectaxonic hands are characterized by a longer fourth ray and are found in most strepsirhines. Most haplorhines possess mesaxonic hands which are c ... Full text Cite

Humeral Head Shape as an Indicator of Locomotor Behavior in Extant Strepsirhines and Eocene Adapids

Journal Article Folia Primatologica · January 1, 1997 Postcranial material from Notharctus, Smilodectes and Cantius is abundant and well studied, but debate continues over whether the locomotor repertoire of these animals included a substantial component of vertical leaping. Here, the shape of the humeral hea ... Cite

Humeral head shape as an indicator of locomotor behavior in extant strepsirhines and Eocene adapids.

Journal Article Folia primatologica; international journal of primatology · January 1996 Postcranial material from Notharctus, Smilodectes and Cantius is abundant and well studied, but debate continues over whether the locomotor repertoire of these animals included a substantial component of vertical leaping. Here, the shape of the humeral hea ... Full text Cite

Heel contact as a function of substrate type and speed in primates.

Journal Article American journal of physical anthropology · January 1995 In this report we provide detailed data on the patterns and frequency of heel contact with terrestrial and arboreal supports in primates. These data can help resolve the question of whether African apes and humans are uniquely "plantigrade" (Gebo [1992] Am ... Full text Cite

The kinetics of primate quadrupedalism: "hindlimb drive" reconsidered

Journal Article Journal of Human Evolution · May 1, 1994 Since Kimura et al.'s (1979) analysis of ground reaction forces during quadrupedal walking, primates are commonly pictured as being "hindlimb driven" compared to "forelimb driven" nonprimate mammals. Hindlimb dominance in primates has subsequently been int ... Full text Cite

Serratus ventralis function in vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops): are primate quadrupeds unique?

Journal Article Journal of Zoology · January 1, 1994 The serratus ventralis in mammals is a fan‐shaped scapulo‐thoracic muscle that is believed by most morphologists both to support body weight and to rotate the scapula during quadrupedal locomotion. Electromyographic studies of this muscle in cats, dogs and ... Full text Cite

Forelimb mechanics as a function of substrate type during quadrupedalism in two anthropoid primates

Journal Article Journal of Human Evolution · January 1, 1994 During the past century, many anthropologists have proposed that hominoid orthograde locomotion arose in an arboreal quadrupedal ancestor with highly mobile, low weight-bearing forelimbs. However, no quantitative data comparing kinematic and kinetic aspect ... Full text Cite