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Richard B. Forward

Professor Emeritus of Zoology
Marine Science and Conservation
135 Duke Marine Lab Rd, Beaufort, NC 28516

Selected Publications


Sensory Physiology and Behavior of Blue Crab (Callinectes Sapidus) Postlarvae During Horizontal Transport

Chapter · January 1, 2021 Adult blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus) live in estuaries and release larvae near the entrances to estuaries. Larvae are then transported offshore to continental shelf areas where they undergo development. Postlarvae, or megalopae, remain near the surface a ... Full text Cite

Vertical migration of aquatic animals

Chapter · January 1, 2019 Diel vertical migration involves vertical migration over the 24 h day. The three patterns are nocturnal, twilight, and reverse, and they function as strategies for feeding and predator avoidance. Zooplankton either follow a preferred light level during mig ... Full text Cite

Vertical Migration of Aquatic Animals

Chapter · January 1, 2019 Diel vertical migration involves vertical migration over the 24 h day. The three patterns are nocturnal, twilight, and reverse, and they function as strategies for feeding and predator avoidance. Zooplankton either follow a preferred light level during mig ... Full text Cite

Entrainment of the circadian rhythm in larval release of the crab Dyspanopeus sayi by temperature cycles

Journal Article Marine and Freshwater Behaviour and Physiology · January 2, 2017 Marine and estuarine crabs brood attached eggs, which hatch synchronously releasing larvae at precise times relative to environmental cycles. The subtidal crab Dyspanopeus sayi has a circadian rhythm, in which larvae are released within the 4-h interval af ... Full text Cite

Chemical cues from adult fiddler crabs stimulate molting of conspecific megalopae: Evidence from field-caught individuals

Journal Article Marine Ecology Progress Series · July 14, 2016 In mid-Atlantic estuaries, 3 species of fiddler crabs (Uca pugilator, U. pugnax and U. minax) co-occur, with their adults occupying different habitat types separated by salinity and sediment size. There is evidence that selective settlement is responsible ... Full text Cite

Zooplankton Diel Vertical Migration - A Review of Proximate Control

Chapter · April 19, 2016 Diel vertical migration (DVM) is a characteristic behavioural pattern performed by zooplankton in which their vertical distribution changes over the 24-h day. Here the proximate control of zooplankton DVM is reviewed. Light has emerged as the major proxima ... Cite

Entrainment of the Circadian Rhythm in Egg Hatching of the Crab Dyspanopeus sayi by Chemical Cues from Ovigerous Females.

Journal Article The Biological bulletin · February 2016 The subtidal crab Dyspanopeus sayi has a circadian rhythm in larval release with a free-running period of 24.1 h. Under constant conditions, eggs hatch primarily in the 4-h interval after the time of sunset. The study tested the new model for entrainment i ... Full text Cite

Settlement of fiddler crab megalopae on a North Carolina (USA) sandflat: Species identification using multiplex PCR provides evidence for selective settlement

Journal Article Marine Ecology Progress Series · March 16, 2015 Selection of settlement sites by planktonic larvae can have important impacts on adult population distributions. Three species of fiddler crabs - Uca pugilator, U. pugnax, and U. minax - commonly co-occur in mid-Atlantic estuaries of the USA. They share a ... Full text Cite

Planktonic ingress of fiddler crab megalopae to the Newport River Estuary, NC: Evidence for semilunar periodicity in Uca pugnax and species-specific sampling bias by hog's hair larval collectors

Journal Article Marine Ecology Progress Series · March 16, 2015 We examined the planktonic ingress of fiddler crab megalopae into the Newport River Estuary, NC, using hog's hair collectors to determine whether there were differences in patterns of ingress among the 3 Uca species in this estuary. In 2 consecutive summer ... Full text Cite

Circadian rhythm in larval release by the crab Rhithropanopeus harrisii: entrainment model.

Journal Article The Biological bulletin · April 2014 The subtidal crab Rhithropanopeus harrisii has a circadian rhythm in larval release; under constant conditions eggs hatch in the 2-3-h interval after the time of sunset in nontidal estuaries. Eggs that are removed from the female hatch rhythmically, indica ... Full text Cite

Visual wavelength discrimination by the loggerhead turtle, Caretta caretta.

Journal Article The Biological bulletin · February 2012 Marine turtles are visual animals, yet we know remarkably little about how they use this sensory capacity. In this study, our purpose was to determine whether loggerhead turtles could discriminate between objects on the basis of color. We used light-adapte ... Full text Cite

The physiological ecology of the supratidal amphipod Talorchestia longicornis.

Journal Article Comparative biochemistry and physiology. Part A, Molecular & integrative physiology · February 2012 Physiology, behavior, habitat, and morphology are used to determine the degree of adaptation to life on land for amphipod species and systemization within the four functional groups of the family talitridae. Talorchestia longicornis is a semi-terrestrial a ... Full text Cite

Blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) larval settlement in North Carolina: Environmental forcing, recruit-stock relationships, and numerical modeling

Journal Article Fisheries Oceanography · January 1, 2012 Ecosystem-based fishery management requires an understanding of relationships between fisheries and environmental variability. The purposes of this study were to investigate (1) how environmental forcing drives variability in larval settlement of the blue ... Full text Cite

Effect of sampling interval on estimates of larval supply

Journal Article Fishery Bulletin · January 1, 2012 Estimates of larval supply can provide information on year-class strength that is useful for fisheries management. However, larval supply is difficult to monitor because long-term, high-frequency sampling is needed. The purpose of this study was to subsamp ... Cite

Seasonal variability in morphology of blue crab, callinectes sapidus, megalopae and early juvenile stage crabs, and distinguishing characteristics among co-occurring portunidae

Journal Article Journal of Crustacean Biology · February 1, 2011 Declines in abundance of the commercially important blue crab Callinectes sapidus have led fishery managers to search for new management strategies. Assessing year-class strength at megalopal or early juvenile stages may contribute to this effort, but sepa ... Full text Cite

Proximate control of diel vertical migration in Phyllosoma larvae of the Caribbean spiny lobster Panulirus argus.

Journal Article The Biological bulletin · December 2010 Phyllosoma larvae of the spiny lobster Panulirus argus undergo diel vertical migration (DVM), in which they are at depth during the day and nearer the surface at night. This study determined the visual spectral sensitivity of Stage I larvae and investigate ... Full text Cite

Visual physiology underlying orientation and diel behavior in the sand beach amphipod Talorchestia longicornis.

Journal Article The Journal of experimental biology · November 2010 Talitrid amphipods employ vision for zonal recovery behaviors on sand beaches and for entraining circadian activity rhythms. Using a hierarchy of methods, we examined visual spectral and response-intensity functions in Talorchestia longicornis, a species i ... Full text Cite

Seasonal changes in entrainment cues for the circadian rhythm of the supratidal amphipod Talorchestia longicornis

Journal Article Marine and Freshwater Behaviour and Physiology · October 1, 2010 The supratidal amphipod Talorchestia longicornis Say has a circadian rhythm in activity, in which it is active on the substrate surface at night and inactive in burrows during the day. The present study determined: (1) the circadian rhythms in individual v ... Full text Cite

Endogenous swimming rhythms underlying the spawning migration of the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus: Ontogeny and variation with ambient tidal regime

Journal Article Marine Biology · July 13, 2010 Spawning female blue crabs, Callinectes sapidus, use ebb-tide transport (ETT) to migrate seaward. In estuaries with semi-diurnal tides, ETT in ovigerous blue crabs is driven by a circatidal rhythm in vertical swimming in which crabs ascend into the water c ... Full text Cite

Hierarchy of sun, beach slope, and landmarks as cues for Y-axis orientation of the supratidal amphipod Talorchestia longicornis (Say)

Journal Article Marine and Freshwater Behaviour and Physiology · July 8, 2010 The semi-terrestrial amphipod Talorchestia longicornis (Say) undergoes Y-axis orientation and has a hierarchy among orientation cues. A previous study found that they used sun compass orientation and moved in the onshore direction of the home beach in both ... Full text Cite

Sensory Physiology and Behavior of Blue Crab (Callinectes Sapidus) Postlarvae During Horizontal Transport

Chapter · January 1, 2021 Adult blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus) live in estuaries and release larvae near the entrances to estuaries. Larvae are then transported offshore to continental shelf areas where they undergo development. Postlarvae, or megalopae, remain near the surface a ... Full text Cite

Vertical migration of aquatic animals

Chapter · January 1, 2019 Diel vertical migration involves vertical migration over the 24 h day. The three patterns are nocturnal, twilight, and reverse, and they function as strategies for feeding and predator avoidance. Zooplankton either follow a preferred light level during mig ... Full text Cite

Vertical Migration of Aquatic Animals

Chapter · January 1, 2019 Diel vertical migration involves vertical migration over the 24 h day. The three patterns are nocturnal, twilight, and reverse, and they function as strategies for feeding and predator avoidance. Zooplankton either follow a preferred light level during mig ... Full text Cite

Entrainment of the circadian rhythm in larval release of the crab Dyspanopeus sayi by temperature cycles

Journal Article Marine and Freshwater Behaviour and Physiology · January 2, 2017 Marine and estuarine crabs brood attached eggs, which hatch synchronously releasing larvae at precise times relative to environmental cycles. The subtidal crab Dyspanopeus sayi has a circadian rhythm, in which larvae are released within the 4-h interval af ... Full text Cite

Chemical cues from adult fiddler crabs stimulate molting of conspecific megalopae: Evidence from field-caught individuals

Journal Article Marine Ecology Progress Series · July 14, 2016 In mid-Atlantic estuaries, 3 species of fiddler crabs (Uca pugilator, U. pugnax and U. minax) co-occur, with their adults occupying different habitat types separated by salinity and sediment size. There is evidence that selective settlement is responsible ... Full text Cite

Zooplankton Diel Vertical Migration - A Review of Proximate Control

Chapter · April 19, 2016 Diel vertical migration (DVM) is a characteristic behavioural pattern performed by zooplankton in which their vertical distribution changes over the 24-h day. Here the proximate control of zooplankton DVM is reviewed. Light has emerged as the major proxima ... Cite

Entrainment of the Circadian Rhythm in Egg Hatching of the Crab Dyspanopeus sayi by Chemical Cues from Ovigerous Females.

Journal Article The Biological bulletin · February 2016 The subtidal crab Dyspanopeus sayi has a circadian rhythm in larval release with a free-running period of 24.1 h. Under constant conditions, eggs hatch primarily in the 4-h interval after the time of sunset. The study tested the new model for entrainment i ... Full text Cite

Settlement of fiddler crab megalopae on a North Carolina (USA) sandflat: Species identification using multiplex PCR provides evidence for selective settlement

Journal Article Marine Ecology Progress Series · March 16, 2015 Selection of settlement sites by planktonic larvae can have important impacts on adult population distributions. Three species of fiddler crabs - Uca pugilator, U. pugnax, and U. minax - commonly co-occur in mid-Atlantic estuaries of the USA. They share a ... Full text Cite

Planktonic ingress of fiddler crab megalopae to the Newport River Estuary, NC: Evidence for semilunar periodicity in Uca pugnax and species-specific sampling bias by hog's hair larval collectors

Journal Article Marine Ecology Progress Series · March 16, 2015 We examined the planktonic ingress of fiddler crab megalopae into the Newport River Estuary, NC, using hog's hair collectors to determine whether there were differences in patterns of ingress among the 3 Uca species in this estuary. In 2 consecutive summer ... Full text Cite

Circadian rhythm in larval release by the crab Rhithropanopeus harrisii: entrainment model.

Journal Article The Biological bulletin · April 2014 The subtidal crab Rhithropanopeus harrisii has a circadian rhythm in larval release; under constant conditions eggs hatch in the 2-3-h interval after the time of sunset in nontidal estuaries. Eggs that are removed from the female hatch rhythmically, indica ... Full text Cite

Visual wavelength discrimination by the loggerhead turtle, Caretta caretta.

Journal Article The Biological bulletin · February 2012 Marine turtles are visual animals, yet we know remarkably little about how they use this sensory capacity. In this study, our purpose was to determine whether loggerhead turtles could discriminate between objects on the basis of color. We used light-adapte ... Full text Cite

The physiological ecology of the supratidal amphipod Talorchestia longicornis.

Journal Article Comparative biochemistry and physiology. Part A, Molecular & integrative physiology · February 2012 Physiology, behavior, habitat, and morphology are used to determine the degree of adaptation to life on land for amphipod species and systemization within the four functional groups of the family talitridae. Talorchestia longicornis is a semi-terrestrial a ... Full text Cite

Blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) larval settlement in North Carolina: Environmental forcing, recruit-stock relationships, and numerical modeling

Journal Article Fisheries Oceanography · January 1, 2012 Ecosystem-based fishery management requires an understanding of relationships between fisheries and environmental variability. The purposes of this study were to investigate (1) how environmental forcing drives variability in larval settlement of the blue ... Full text Cite

Effect of sampling interval on estimates of larval supply

Journal Article Fishery Bulletin · January 1, 2012 Estimates of larval supply can provide information on year-class strength that is useful for fisheries management. However, larval supply is difficult to monitor because long-term, high-frequency sampling is needed. The purpose of this study was to subsamp ... Cite

Seasonal variability in morphology of blue crab, callinectes sapidus, megalopae and early juvenile stage crabs, and distinguishing characteristics among co-occurring portunidae

Journal Article Journal of Crustacean Biology · February 1, 2011 Declines in abundance of the commercially important blue crab Callinectes sapidus have led fishery managers to search for new management strategies. Assessing year-class strength at megalopal or early juvenile stages may contribute to this effort, but sepa ... Full text Cite

Proximate control of diel vertical migration in Phyllosoma larvae of the Caribbean spiny lobster Panulirus argus.

Journal Article The Biological bulletin · December 2010 Phyllosoma larvae of the spiny lobster Panulirus argus undergo diel vertical migration (DVM), in which they are at depth during the day and nearer the surface at night. This study determined the visual spectral sensitivity of Stage I larvae and investigate ... Full text Cite

Visual physiology underlying orientation and diel behavior in the sand beach amphipod Talorchestia longicornis.

Journal Article The Journal of experimental biology · November 2010 Talitrid amphipods employ vision for zonal recovery behaviors on sand beaches and for entraining circadian activity rhythms. Using a hierarchy of methods, we examined visual spectral and response-intensity functions in Talorchestia longicornis, a species i ... Full text Cite

Seasonal changes in entrainment cues for the circadian rhythm of the supratidal amphipod Talorchestia longicornis

Journal Article Marine and Freshwater Behaviour and Physiology · October 1, 2010 The supratidal amphipod Talorchestia longicornis Say has a circadian rhythm in activity, in which it is active on the substrate surface at night and inactive in burrows during the day. The present study determined: (1) the circadian rhythms in individual v ... Full text Cite

Endogenous swimming rhythms underlying the spawning migration of the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus: Ontogeny and variation with ambient tidal regime

Journal Article Marine Biology · July 13, 2010 Spawning female blue crabs, Callinectes sapidus, use ebb-tide transport (ETT) to migrate seaward. In estuaries with semi-diurnal tides, ETT in ovigerous blue crabs is driven by a circatidal rhythm in vertical swimming in which crabs ascend into the water c ... Full text Cite

Hierarchy of sun, beach slope, and landmarks as cues for Y-axis orientation of the supratidal amphipod Talorchestia longicornis (Say)

Journal Article Marine and Freshwater Behaviour and Physiology · July 8, 2010 The semi-terrestrial amphipod Talorchestia longicornis (Say) undergoes Y-axis orientation and has a hierarchy among orientation cues. A previous study found that they used sun compass orientation and moved in the onshore direction of the home beach in both ... Full text Cite

Vertical Migration of Aquatic Animals

Chapter · January 1, 2010 Diel vertical migration involves vertical migration over the 24 h day. The three patterns are nocturnal, twilight, and reverse, and they function as strategis for feeding and predator avoidance. Zooplankton either follow a preferred light level during migr ... Full text Cite

Zooplankton diel vertical migration - A review of proximate control

Journal Article Oceanography and Marine Biology · December 1, 2009 Diel vertical migration (DVM) is a characteristic behavioural pattern performed by zoo- plankton in which their vertical distribution changes over the 24-h day. Here the proximate control of zooplankton DVM is reviewed. Light has emerged as the major proxi ... Cite

Mechanisms regulating estuarine ingress of blue crab Callinectes sapidus megalopae

Journal Article Marine Ecology Progress Series · October 2, 2009 Mechanisms of shoreward transport and estuarine ingress in blue crab Callinectes sapidus megalopae have been difficult to infer from time series of nightly settlement on passive hog's hair collectors. We attempted to investigate the hypothesis that separat ... Full text Cite

Orientation to shorelines by the supratidal amphipod Talorchestia longicornis: Wavelength specific behavior during sun compass orientation

Journal Article Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology · August 15, 2009 If released in water or on sand the supratidal amphipod Talorchestia longicornis Say amphipods moves in the onshore direction. The present study was designed to determine whether this species uses the sun as a cue for orientation and if so, which visual pi ... Full text Cite

WIND-FORCED RECRUITMENT DYNAMICS OF THE BLUE CRAB CALLINECTES SAPIDUS

Conference JOURNAL OF SHELLFISH RESEARCH · August 1, 2009 Link to item Cite

Entrainment of the circadian rhythm of the supratidal amphipod Talorchestia longicornis by light and temperature: Mechanisms of detection and hierarchical organization

Journal Article Marine and Freshwater Behaviour and Physiology · July 1, 2009 The amphipod Talorchestia longicornis is active on the substrate surface during the night and inactive in its burrows during the day. The underlying circadian rhythm in activity can be entrained by the light: dark cycle. This study considered other aspects ... Full text Cite

Larval biology of the crab Rhithropanopeus harrisii (Gould): a synthesis.

Journal Article The Biological bulletin · June 2009 This synthesis reviews the physiological ecology and behavior of larvae of the benthic crab Rhithropanopeus harrisii, which occurs in low-salinity areas of estuaries. Larvae are released rhythmically around the time of high tide in tidal estuaries and in t ... Full text Cite

Ingress of brachyuran crab post-larvae to the newport river estuary

Journal Article Estuaries and Coasts · March 1, 2009 Planktonic larvae of estuarine species often develop in the coastal ocean and return to estuaries using favorable currents. This study investigated spatial distributions of brachyuran crab post-larvae during ingress to the Newport River estuary, North Caro ... Full text Cite

Vertical Migration of Aquatic Animals

Chapter · January 1, 2009 Diel vertical migration involves vertical migration over the 24 h day. The three patterns are nocturnal, twilight, and reverse, and they function as strategies for feeding and predator avoidance. Zooplankton either follow a preferred light level during mig ... Full text Cite

Spectral sensitivity of the amphipod Talorchestia longicornis

Journal Article Journal of Experimental Biology · 2009 Cite

Visual spectral sensitivity of hatchling loggerhead (Caretta caretta L.) and leatherback (Dermochelys coriacea L.) sea turtles, as determined by single-flash electroretinography

Journal Article Marine and Freshwater Behaviour and Physiology · June 1, 2008 Electroretinographic recordings were made from hatchling loggerhead and leatherback sea turtle eyecup preparations to generate dark-adapted spectral sensitivity curves. Both species were maximally sensitive to wavelengths between 500 and 540 nm, with a sec ... Full text Cite

Is the hatching clock of fiddler crab larvae (Uca thayeri) phenotypically plastic?

Journal Article Journal of Crustacean Biology · May 1, 2008 Larval release by adult fiddler crabs occurs during the ebbing tides, but its timing relative to the day-night and tidal amplitude cycles depends upon tidal form, e.g., shows phenotypical plasticity. Crabs (Uca thayeri) from Florida's East Coast are expose ... Full text Cite

Entrainment of the larval release rhythm of the crab Rhithropanopeus harrisii (Brachyura: Xanthidae) by cycles in hydrostatic pressure

Journal Article Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology · March 31, 2008 This study investigated the entrainment of a larval release rhythm by determining whether a tidal cycle in hydrostatic pressure could entrain the circatidal rhythm in larval release by the crab Rhithropanopeus harrisii (Gould). Ovigerous females were colle ... Full text Cite

Comparison of low salinity tolerance in Callinectes sapidus Rathbun and Callinectes similis Williams postlarvae upon entry into an estuary

Journal Article Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology · December 14, 2007 Planktonic larvae of estuarine crabs are commonly exported to the continental shelf for development and then return to coastal and estuarine areas as postlarvae (megalopae). Megalopae returning to estuaries must be adapted to survive in brackish water wher ... Full text Cite

The ontogeny of the endogenous rhythm in vertical migration of the blue crab Callinectes sapidus at metamorphosis

Journal Article Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology · September 7, 2007 Postlarvae or megalopae of the blue crab Callinectes sapidus are transported from offshore areas into estuaries where they settle and metamorphose in areas of submerged vegetation. Separate previous studies found that both intermolt megalopae and juvenile ... Full text Cite

Larval release behaviors in the Caribbean spiny lobster, Panulirus argus: role of peptide pheromones.

Journal Article Journal of chemical ecology · September 2007 Larval release in the Caribbean spiny lobster Panulirus argus is highly synchronous and is controlled by a "pumping pheromone" released from the hatching eggs. The pheromone induces a parent female to undergo stereotypical larval release behaviors, includi ... Full text Cite

Control of larval release in the Caribbean spiny lobster, Panulirus argus: Role of chemical cues

Journal Article Marine Biology · September 1, 2007 The current model for larval release in subtidal crustaceans suggests that hatching time is controlled by the embryos, which release a pheromone that stimulates the parent female to undergo behaviors that synchronize larval release. Alternatively, hatching ... Full text Cite

Endogenous rhythm in activity of an estuarine amphipod, Talorchestia longicornis

Journal Article Marine and Freshwater Behaviour and Physiology · June 1, 2007 The biological rhythm in activity of the supratidal amphipod Talorchestia longicornis Say was determined under constant conditions. Surface activity was monitored with a time-lapse video system under red light and assessed as the number of animals emerging ... Full text Cite

Sublethal effects of the toxic dinoflagellate Karenia brevis on marine copepod behavior

Journal Article Journal of Plankton Research · March 1, 2007 Apart from grazing interactions, little is known regarding the sublethal effects of Karenia brevis cells on copepod behavior. We conducted grazing and mortality experiments with K. brevis cells and brevetoxins (PbTx-2), establishing routes of toxicity for ... Full text Cite

Entrainment of the activity rhythm of the mole crab Emerita talpoida

Journal Article Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology · February 13, 2007 The mole crab Emerita talpoida migrates with the tide in the swash zone of sand beaches. A circatidal rhythm in vertical swimming underlies movement, in which mature male crabs show peak swimming activity 1-2 h after the time of high tides at the collectio ... Full text Cite

Larval release behaviors of the striped hermit crab, Clibanarius vittatus (Bosc): Temporal pattern in hatching

Journal Article Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology · August 8, 2006 Ovigerous hermit crabs, Clibanarius vittatus (Bosc), were examined in the laboratory to (1) determine if the time of larval release is a synchronous event, (2) determine the influence of a damaged gastropod shell during the egg hatching process, and (3) de ... Full text Cite

Larval release rhythm of the mole crab Emerita talpoida (Say).

Journal Article The Biological bulletin · December 2005 Ovigerous mole crabs Emerita talpoida (Say) were monitored in the laboratory to determine if the time of larval release is synchronous and under endogenous control. To determine the time of larval release, ovigerous females were placed under a 14:10 light/ ... Full text Cite

The tidal rhythm in activity of the mole crab Emerita talpoida

Journal Article Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom · August 1, 2005 The mole crab Emerita talpoida occurs in the swash zone of sandy beaches. Although crabs move with the tide, field studies found that the smaller crabs are distributed higher intertidally than the larger crabs. The present study tested the hypothesis that ... Full text Cite

Spatial patterns in the ovigerous Callinectes sapidus spawning migration: Results from a coupled behavioral-physical model

Journal Article Marine Ecology Progress Series · June 9, 2005 Ovigerous blue crabs Callinectes sapidus use ebb-tide transport (ETT), a vertical migratory behavior in which crabs ascend into the water column during ebb tides, to migrate from estuarine adult habitats to coastal larval release locations. We have develop ... Full text Cite

Diel vertical migration of the marine copepod Calanopia americana. II. Proximate role of exogenous light cues and endogenous rhythms

Journal Article Marine Biology · June 1, 2005 The marine copepod Calanopia americana Dahl undergoes twilight diel vertical migration (DVM) in the Newport River estuary, North Carolina, USA, in synchrony with the light:dark cycle. Copepods ascend to the surface at sunset, descend to the bottom around m ... Full text Cite

Diel vertical migration of the marine copepod Calanopia americana. I. Twilight DVM and its relationship to the diel light cycle

Journal Article Marine Biology · June 1, 2005 Marine copepods commonly exhibit vertical movements in the water column over the diel cycle, termed diel vertical migration (DVM), with the most common pattern being an ascent in the water column to minimum depth around sunset and descent to maximum depth ... Full text Cite

Endogenous swimming rhythms underlying secondary dispersal of early juvenile blue crabs, Callinectes sapidus

Journal Article Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology · March 9, 2005 Blue crab, Callinectes sapidus Rathbun, megalopae settle in seagrass or other complex submerged aquatic habitats in estuaries, where they metamorphose to the first juvenile (J1) crab stage. Within tidal areas, early juveniles (J1-2) leave such nursery area ... Full text Cite

The circatidal rhythm in vertical swimming of female blue crabs, Callinectes sapidus, during their spawning migration: A reconsideration

Journal Article Journal of Shellfish Research · January 1, 2005 Ovigerous blue crabs, Callinectes sapidus Rathbun, undergo ebb-tide transport (ETT) during the spawning migration from estuaries to coastal areas where they release larvae. An initial field study found that only females with mature embryos underwent the sp ... Full text Cite

Photobehavior as an inducible defense in the marine copepod Calanopia americana

Journal Article Limnology and Oceanography · January 1, 2005 The photoresponses of Calanopia americana involved in diel vertical migration (DVM) were tested after exposure of copepods to the following predator kairomones: (1) crude body mucus from fish (Fundulus heteroclitus), (2) crude body mucus from ctenophores ( ... Full text Cite

Movement patterns and trajectories of ovigerous blue crabs Callinectes sapidus during the spawning migration

Journal Article Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science · August 1, 2004 Female blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus Rathbun) migrate from low salinity estuarine regions to high salinity regions near the ocean to release larvae. During this migration, ovigerous females use ebb-tide transport, a vertical migratory behavior in which t ... Full text Cite

Settlement of blue crab Callinectes sapidus megalopae in a North Carolina estuary

Journal Article Marine Ecology Progress Series · March 25, 2004 Nightly settlement of blue crab Callinectes sapidus megalopae on passive collectors was monitored from September to November over 7 yr at a single location in the Newport River estuary (North Carolina, USA). The total number of megalopae settling varied ye ... Full text Cite

Factors affecting the circatidal rhythm in vertical swimming of ovigerous blue crabs, Callinectes sapidus, involved in the spawning migration

Journal Article Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology · February 24, 2004 Ovigerous blue crabs, Callinectes sapidus, are observed to undergo nocturnal ebb-tide transport (ETT) during their seaward spawning migration. A previous study found that females undergoing the spawning migration have a circatidal rhythm in vertical swimmi ... Full text Cite

Endogenous swimming rhythms of juvenile blue crabs, Callinectes sapidus, as related to horizontal transport

Journal Article Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology · February 10, 2004 The blue crab Callinectes sapidus settles and metamorphoses in areas of aquatic vegetation in estuaries. Crabs in the first-fifth instar stages (J1-5) then emigrate from these areas by walking on the bottom or pelagic dispersal throughout estuaries. The pr ... Full text Cite

Testing a selective tidal-stream transport model: Observations of female blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) vertical migration during the spawning season

Journal Article Limnology and Oceanography · January 1, 2004 Female blue crabs, Callinectes sapidus, mate in estuaries and undergo a seaward spawning migration to release larvae. According to the prevailing model, females with mature embryos use nocturnal ebb-tide transport (ETT) to move seaward, release larvae, and ... Full text Cite

Effects of chemical cues on orientation of blue crab, Callinectes sapidus, megalopae in flow: Implications for location of nursery areas

Journal Article Marine Biology · April 1, 2003 Megalopae (postlarvae) of the blue crab Callinectes sapidus Rathbun use flood-tide transport (FTT) for movement into and up estuaries. Since they settle around the time of slack water at the end of flood tide during FTT, it was predicted that orientation t ... Full text Cite

Selective tidal-stream transport of the blue crab Callinectes Sapidus: An overview

Journal Article Bulletin of Marine Science · March 1, 2003 This overview combines our recent studies with existing information to develop more complete conceptual models of selective tidal-stream transport (STST) of ovigerous female and post-larvae of the blue crab Callinectes sapidus. During the first phase of th ... Cite

Ctenophore kairomones and modified aminosugar disaccharides alter the shadow response in a larval crab

Journal Article Journal of Plankton Research · February 1, 2003 Zoea larvae of the estuarine crab Rhithropanopeus harrisii (Gould) descend in the water column upon sudden decreases in irradiance, which serves as a shadow response for the avoidance of zooplankton predators such as ctenophores. This study tested the hypo ... Full text Cite

Larval photoresponses of the polyclad flatworm Maritigrella crozieri (Platyhelminthes, Polycladida) (Hyman)

Journal Article Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology · January 8, 2003 Phototaxis by larvae of the flatworm Maritigrella crozieri was used to determine spectral sensitivity, the ontogeny of the phototactic pattern, and the lowest light intensity to induce a directional response (intensity threshold). Adult M. crozieri live in ... Full text Cite

Orientation of juvenile blue crabs, Callinectes sapidus Rathbun, to currents, chemicals, and visual cues

Journal Article Journal of Crustacean Biology · January 1, 2003 Postlarvae of the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus, settle and metamorphose in beds of submerged vegetation in estuarine nursery, areas. They remain there until crab stage IV or V, which disperses throughout estuaries. The study considered orientation of Sta ... Full text Cite

Circatidal activity rhythms in ovigerous blue crabs, Callinectes sapidus: Implications for ebb-tide transport during the spawning migration

Journal Article Marine Biology · January 1, 2003 Female blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus Rathbun) with mature embryos have a spawning migration in which they: (1) undergo ebb-tide transport for movement seaward from estuaries, (2) release their larvae, and (3) reverse direction by undergoing flood-tide tr ... Full text Cite

Spectral sensitivity of vertically migrating marine copepods.

Journal Article The Biological bulletin · December 2002 Light is a critical factor in the proximate basis of diel vertical migration (DVM) in zooplankton. A photobehavioral approach was used to examine the spectral sensitivity of four coastal species of calanoid copepod, representing a diversity of DVM patterns ... Full text Cite

Settlement times of blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) megalopae during flood-tide transport

Journal Article Marine Biology · December 1, 2002 Settlement by blue crab (Callinectes sapidus Rathbun) megalopae on artificial settlement substrates was monitored relative to tidal currents throughout ten nights from July to September 1997 in which the phase relationship between tides and the light:dark ... Full text Cite

Photoresponses of the copepod Calanopia americana involved in diel vertical migration.

Conference INTEGRATIVE AND COMPARATIVE BIOLOGY · December 1, 2002 Link to item Cite

Ontogeny of phototaxis and geotaxis during larval development of the sabellariid polychaete Phragmatopoma lapidosa

Journal Article Marine Ecology Progress Series · October 4, 2002 Thorson generalized that the larvae of intertidal animals should remain photopositive throughout larval life to facilitate encounters with shallow surfaces at settlement. We tested this idea for the sabellariid polychaete Phragmatopoma lapidosa by investig ... Full text Cite

Larval release behaviors in the blue crab Callinectes sapidus: Role of chemical cues

Journal Article Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology · July 3, 2002 Egg hatching by brachyuran crabs is often precisely timed relative to environmental cycles and may be controlled by the female, the developing embryos, or both. The current conceptual model for larval release in subtidal brachyuran crabs is that the exact ... Full text Cite

Evidence for a two pigment visual system in the fiddler crab, Uca thayeri.

Journal Article Journal of comparative physiology. A, Neuroethology, sensory, neural, and behavioral physiology · July 2002 Intraocular recordings were made from the eyestalks of dark-adapted fiddler crabs (Uca thayeri) during presentation of monochromatic light flashes of different wavelengths and intensities. Two types of signals were recorded in different experiments: slow p ... Full text Cite

Effects of chemical cues on visual orientation of juvenile blue crabs, Callinectes sapidus (Rathbun)

Journal Article Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology · November 30, 2001 Stage I crabs of Callinectes sapidus occur in beds of submerged vegetation in estuarine nursery areas. After reaching the IV-V instars, juveniles leave nursery habitats and disperse throughout estuaries. This study tested the hypothesis that I and IV-V sta ... Full text Cite

Selective tidal-stream transport of marine animals

Journal Article OCEANOGRAPHY AND MARINE BIOLOGY, VOL 39 · January 1, 2001 Link to item Cite

Cues for Metamorphosis of Brachyuran Crabs: An Overview1

Journal Article American Zoologist · January 1, 2001 The early life cycle bf brachyuran crabs has a planktonic dispersal stage consisting of a variable number of zoeal larvae followed by the molt to the megalopa stage. Megalopae undergo horizontal transport to the settlement site where they settle out of the ... Full text Cite

Orientation of the hermit crab Clibanarius antillensis: Effects of visual and chemical cues

Journal Article Journal of Crustacean Biology · January 1, 2001 Orientation of the hermit crabs Clibanarius antillensis to solid and striped targets of different visual angles was tested in a circular arena upon exposure to background sea water, calcium concentrations, gastropod odor, predatory fish odor, and seagrass ... Full text Cite

Light induced larval release of a colonial ascidian.

Journal Article Journal of experimental marine biology and ecology · May 2000 Larval release and photobehavior were studied in the colonial ascidian Polyandrocarpa zorritensis. The test hypothesis was that if larval release is induced by light, then larvae should be attracted to settlement areas where light is sufficient for larval ... Full text Cite

Alteration of photoresponses involved in diel vertical migration of a crab larva by fish mucus and degradation products of mucopolysaccharides.

Journal Article Journal of experimental marine biology and ecology · March 2000 Photoresponses involved in the descent phase of nocturnal diel vertical migration (DVM) of larvae of the crab Rhithropanopeus harrisii were measured in a laboratory system that mimicked the underwater angular light distribution. The test hypothesis was tha ... Full text Cite

Responses of mud snails and periwinkles to environmental odors and disaccharide mimics of fish odor

Journal Article Journal of Chemical Ecology · January 1, 2000 Estuarine snails, periwinkles (Littoraria irorata), and mud snails (Ilyanassa obsoleta) were tested for behavioral responses to aqueous extracts of tissue macerates, odors of living intact organisms, and to disaccharides derived from heparin. Extracts incl ... Full text Cite

Behaviour and sensory physiology of Atlantic menhaden larvae, Brevoortia tyrannus, during horizontal transport

Journal Article Fisheries Oceanography · December 1, 1999 Atlantic menhaden, Brevoortia tyrannus, spawn on the continental shelf off North Carolina in the late fall and winter. Larvae are transported shoreward where they enter and migrate up estuaries to the juvenile habitat. In this paper, we synthesize behaviou ... Full text Cite

Circulation and larval fish transport within a tidally dominated estuary

Journal Article Fisheries Oceanography · December 1, 1999 In March 1996 two surveys of larval fish abundance and water flow were carried out within the estuarine region near Beaufort Inlet, NC. Each survey extended over two full semidiurnal tidal cycles and included measurements of larvae concentration and veloci ... Full text Cite

Larval transport during winter in the SABRE study area: Results of a coupled vertical larval behaviour-three-dimensional circulation model

Journal Article Fisheries Oceanography · December 1, 1999 A three-dimensional circulation model was used in conjunction with larval fish vertical behaviour models to study the interaction between larval vertical distribution, advection and the outcome of larval transport along the central portion of the east coas ... Full text Cite

Behavioral responses of blue crab Callinectes sapidus postlarvae to turbulence: Implications for selective tidal stream transport

Journal Article Marine Ecology Progress Series · April 15, 1999 Postlarvae (megalopae) of the blue crab Callinectes sapidus move up estuaries using selective tidal stream transport, in which they are in the water column on flood tides and at or near the bottom at other times. They have no endogenous tidal rhythm in act ... Full text Cite

Orientation of blue crab, Callinectes sapidus (Rathbun), megalopae: Responses to visual and chemical cues

Journal Article Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology · January 31, 1999 Post-larvae (megalopae) of the blue crab Callinectes sapidus are transported from offshore areas into estuaries where they settle and metamorphose in specific areas, such as seagrass beds. The present study tested the hypothesis that intermolt and premolt ... Full text Cite

Brine shrimp larval photoresponses involved in diel vertical migration: Activation by fish mucus and modified amino sugars

Journal Article Limnology and Oceanography · January 1, 1999 Photoresponses involved in the descent phase of nocturnal diel vertical migration of brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) naupliar larvae were measured in a laboratory system that mimicked the underwater angular light distribution. The test hypothesis was th ... Full text Cite

Transport of fish larvae through a tidal inlet

Journal Article Fisheries Oceanography · January 1, 1999 In the South-eastern USA many species of estuarine-dependent fishes spawn offshore and their larvae are transported into estuaries. The present study combined physical measurements and zooplankton sampling at the Beaufort Inlet (North Carolina) to determin ... Full text Cite

Selective tidal stream transport of spot (Leistomus xanthurus Lacepede) and pinfish [Lagodon rhomboides (Linnaeus)] larvae: Contribution of circatidal rhythms in activity

Journal Article Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology · August 1, 1998 Spot (Leistomus xanthusus Lacepede) and pinfish (Lagodon rhomboides Linnaeus) spawn offshore and their larvae are then transported shoreward where they migrate into estuaries for continued development. The present study determined (1) whether larvae of the ... Full text Cite

Metamorphosis of the estuarine crab Rhithropanopeus harrisii: Effect of water type and adult odor

Journal Article Marine Ecology Progress Series · May 7, 1998 Larvae of many estuarine crabs are transported to coastal/offshore areas where they develop and subsequently return to the estuary as postlarvae [megalopae], which settle and metamorphose. For these species, it is important for megalopae to be able to diff ... Full text Cite

Cues and context: Larval responses to physical and chemical cues

Journal Article Biofouling · January 1, 1998 Most marine organisms have a highly specialized larval settlement stage. A major function of the settlement stage is response to environmental input that results in deposition of the larvae in a location which confers probability of survival and successful ... Full text Cite

Metamorphosis of the blue crab Callinectes sapidus: Effects of humic acids and ammonium

Journal Article Marine Ecology Progress Series · October 16, 1997 Postlarvae (megalopae) of the blue crab Callinectes sapidus are transported from offshore/coastal areas into estuaries where they metamorphose (molt) to the first crab stage. Metamorphosis is accelerated by exposure to chemical cues in estuarine water. The ... Full text Cite

Effects of chemical cues on settlement behavior of blue crab Callinectes sapidus postlarvae

Journal Article Marine Ecology Progress Series · July 31, 1997 Settlement of blue crab Callinectes sapidus Rathbun postlarvae (megalopae) was examined in the field in the presence and absence of chemical cues from settlement habitats and potential megalopal predators. Megalopae in premolt preferentially settled on col ... Full text Cite

Endogenous swimming rhythms of blue crab, Callinectes sapidus, megalopae: Effects of offshore and estuarine cues

Journal Article Marine Biology · March 1, 1997 Larvae of the blue crab Callinectes sapidus Rathbun develop on the continental shelf. The postlarval stage (megalopa) occurs near the surface and is transported shoreward by wind-driven surface currents. It then uses selective tidal stream transport for mi ... Full text Cite

Endogenous swimming rhythms of larval atlantic menhaden, Brevoortia tyrannus latrobe: Implications for vertical migration

Journal Article Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology · October 25, 1996 Atlantic menhaden, Brevoortia tyrannus Latrobe, spawn on the continental shelf, Larvae are transported shoreward where they enter estuaries and metamorphose. Field studies suggest that while offshore, larvae may undergo nocturnal diel vertical migration (D ... Full text Cite

Effects of environmental cues on metamorphosis of the blue crab Callinectes sapidus

Journal Article Marine Ecology Progress Series · February 8, 1996 Postlarvae (megalopae) of the blue crab Callinectes sapidus (Rathbun) are transported from shelf/coastal areas into estuaries where they metamorphose (molt) to the first crab stage. This study used time to metamorphosis of megalopae collected near the entr ... Full text Cite

Photoresponses of larval Atlantic menhaden (Brevoortia tyrannus Latrobe) in offshore and estuarine waters: Implications for transport

Journal Article Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology · January 1, 1996 This study tested the hypothesis that Atlantic menhaden (Brevoortia tyrannus Latrobe) larvae have separate behaviors in offshore and estuarine waters that are evoked by chemical cues in these waters. Atlantic menhaden spawn offshore, and larvae are transpo ... Full text Cite

Activation of brine shrimp nauplii photoresponses involved in diel vertical migration by chemical cues from visual and non-visual planktivores

Journal Article Journal of Plankton Research · December 1, 1995 The effects of exposure to visual and non-visual planktivores on the photoresponses involved in the descent phase of nocturnal diel vertical migration (DVM) of bnne shrimp (Anemia franciscana) naupliar larvae were measured in a laboratory system that mimic ... Full text Cite

Responses of estuarine crab megalopae to pressure, salinity and light: Implications for flood-tide transport

Journal Article Marine Biology · May 1, 1995 The megalopal larval stage of many estuarine brachyuran crabs appears to return to adult habitats by undergoing rhythmic vertical migrations which result in saltatory up-estuary transport on flood tides. Larval ascent into the water column during rising ti ... Full text Cite

Behavioral response of larval Atlantic menhaden Brevoortia tyrannus (Latrobe) and spot Leiostomus xanthurus (Lacépède) to rates of salinity change

Journal Article Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology · January 16, 1995 Larval Atlantic menhaden [Brevoortia tyrannus (Latrobe)] and spot [Leiostomus xanthurus) (Lacépède)] are transported from the western Gulf Stream edge to bays and estuaries of the southeastern United States. Direction of water flow on the continental shelf ... Full text Cite

Sensory physiology and behavior of blue crab (callinectes sapidus) postlarvae during horizontaltransport

Journal Article Marine and Freshwater Behaviour and Physiology · January 1, 1995 Adult blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus) live in estuaries and release larvae near the entrances to estuaries. Larvae are then transported offshore to continental shelf areas where they undergo development. Postlarvae, or megalopae, remain near the surface a ... Full text Cite

Visual orientation of postlarval and juvenile mangrove crabs

Journal Article Journal of Crustacean Biology · January 1, 1995 Full text Cite

Behavioural response of larval Atlantic menhaden to different rates of temperature change

Journal Article Journal of Fish Biology · January 1, 1995 Larval Atlantic menhaden Brevoortia tyrannus, spawned off North Carolina (U.S.A.) during the winter, undergo cross‐shelf transport from the western Gulf Stream edge to coastal bays and estuaries. Variation in water flow direction with depth provides larvae ... Full text Cite

Abundance of estuarine crab larvae is associated with tidal hydrologic variables

Journal Article Marine Biology · February 1, 1994 Abundances of brachyuran megalopae and juveniles were measured throughout consecutive tidal cycles during six 2 to 3 d sampling periods in summer 1992, and associated with rates of change of tidal hydrologic variables in the Newport River Estuary. Current ... Full text Cite

Endogenous swimming rhythms in estuarine crab megalopae: implications for flood-tide transport

Journal Article Marine Biology · February 1, 1994 Up-estuary migration of crab larvae to adult habitats is thought to be accomplished by selective tidal transport in which late-stage larvae enter the water column on flood tides and remain on or near the bottom on ebb tides. This study measured endogenous ... Full text Cite

Ontogeny of phototactic behavior in red drum larvae (Sciaenidae: Sciaenops ocellatus)

Journal Article Marine Ecology Progress Series · January 1, 1994 Results indicate an ontogenetic increase in photo-responsiveness, beginning as early as Day 3 posthatch. Light-adapted larvae as young as Day 4 exhibited a lower response than dark-adapted larvae at the same stimulus intensities, indicating dark and light ... Full text Cite

Swimbladder deflation in the Atlantic menhadden, Brevoortia tyrannus

Journal Article Fishery Bulletin · January 1, 1994 Cite

Photoresponses of crab megalopae in offshore and estuarine waters: Implications for transport

Journal Article Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology · 1994 Full text Cite

Activation of photoresponses of brine shrimp nauplii involved in diel vertical migration by chemical cues from fish

Journal Article Journal of Plankton Research · December 1, 1993 The effects of exposure to a planktivorous fish (Atlantic menhaden larvae) on the photoresponse involved in the descent phase of nocturnal did vertical migration of brine shrimp (Artemia) naupliar larvae were measured in a laboratory system that mimicked t ... Full text Cite

Superpotent synthetic tripeptide mimics of the mud-crab pumping pheromone.

Journal Article International journal of peptide and protein research · October 1993 Soluble pheromones released by the mud crab, Rhithropanopeus harrisii (Gould) during egg hatching cause the female crab to contract her abdomen rapidly (the pumping response). This stereotypical behavior can be induced in the laboratory by exposing egg-bea ... Full text Cite

Seasonal changes in vocalization during behavior of the Atlantic bottlenose dolphin

Journal Article Estuaries · January 1, 1993 Four vocalizations (whistles, buzzes, quacks, and pops) were quantified during three behavioral categories (socializing, traveling, and feeding) of the bottlenose dolphin in the Newport River Estuary, North Carolina. This study tested the hypothesis that s ... Full text Cite

Direction orientation of the sand fiddler crab Uca pugilator (Bosc) in water: onshore escape response

Journal Article Marine Behaviour & Physiology · January 1, 1993 When dislocated offshore at their home beach, sand fiddler crab displayed an escape response, in which they moved directionally in the onshore direction. This response probably functions for predator avoidance of an area containing predators. Male crabs co ... Full text Cite

Offshore escape response and directional orientation of the striped hermit crab Clibanarius vittatus (Bosc)

Journal Article Marine Behaviour & Physiology · January 1, 1993 This crab commonly lives subtidally along sheltered shorelines and displayed an escape response oriented in the offshore direction at the home beach. Crabs moved downslope at angles ≥7°. In a wave tank, they moved into approaching waves. Crabs tested under ... Full text Cite

Orientation of the hermit crab Clibanarius vittatus (Bosc) to visual cues: effects of mollusc chemical cues

Journal Article Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology · December 7, 1992 Orientation of the striped legged hermit crab Clibanarius vittatus (Bosc) to black horizontal areas of different sizes was studied in a circular arena. Crabs were tested either in the presence or absence of chemicals that signal the potential availability ... Full text Cite

Effects of feeding and predator exposure on photoresponses during diel vertical migration of brine shrimp larvae

Journal Article Limnology and Oceanography · January 1, 1992 This article is in Free Access Publication and may be downloaded using the “Download Full Text PDF” link at right. © 1992, by the Association for the Sciences of Limnology and Oceanography, Inc. ... Full text Cite

The role of the underwater polarized light pattern, in sun compass navigation of the grass shrimp, Palaemonetes vulgaris

Journal Article Journal of Comparative Physiology A · October 1, 1991 1. The sky polarized light pattern is visible underwater within the critical angle of refraction and can be used to position the sun in the sky. The present study determined whether the shrimp, Palaemonetes vulgaris could use this polarization pattern for ... Full text Cite

Mechanisms of crustacean egg hatching: Evidence for enzyme release by crab embryos

Journal Article Marine Biology · June 1, 1991 During the summer of 1989, we examined mechanisms of egg hatching in three species of brachyurans that occupy different habitats as adults near Beaufort, North Carolina, USA:Neopanope sayi (Smith) (subtidal), Uca pugilator (Bosc) (intertidal) and Sesarma c ... Full text Cite

Effect of salinity on osmoregulation and survival of a rhizocephalan parasite, Loxothylacus panopaei, and its crab host, Rhithropanopeus harrisii

Journal Article Estuaries · January 1, 1991 The rhizocephalan Loxothylacus panopaei parasitizes the estuarine crab Rhithropanopeus harrisii. Parasitized crabs are abundant during summers when salinities increase to around 15‰ in the crab–s habitat and scarce when salinities are lower. The two hypoth ... Full text Cite

The decay and learning of an y axis orientation behavior: the offshore escape response of the shrimp Palaemonetes vulgaris (Say)

Journal Article Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology · October 2, 1990 The shrimp Palaemonetes vulgaris (Say) lives along shorelines and, when frightened, uses solar cues to orient in an offshore direction. The decay and learning of this behavior were studied. The persistence of this behavior in the absence of daytime celesti ... Full text Cite

Behavioral Responses of Crustacean Larvae to Rates of Temperature Change.

Journal Article The Biological bulletin · June 1990 The ontogeny of behavioral responses of larvae of the crabs Rhithropanopeus harrisii and Neopanope sayi to rates of change in temperature were analyzed using a video system. A temperature decrease evoked an ascent in both species. The threshold rates of de ... Full text Cite

Larval release in brachyuran crustaceans Functional similarity of peptide pheromone receptor and catalytic site of trypsin.

Journal Article Journal of chemical ecology · April 1990 Studies of crab egg hatching and larval release behavior in the crab,Rhithropanopeus harrisii, generated a model describing the process. In the model, carboxyl terminal arginine peptides serve as pheromones that synchronize larval release. In response to t ... Full text Cite

Eicosanoids in corals and crustaceans: primary metabolites that function as allelochemicals and pheromones.

Journal Article Progress in clinical and biological research · January 1990 Cite

The ontogeny of facultative superposition optics in a shrimp eye: hatching through metamorphosis

Journal Article Cell and Tissue Research · November 1, 1989 A preliminary report on this research has appeared in the form of an abstract (Douglass 1985)Compound eyes of larval and first postlarval grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio Holthuis) were studied with light and electron microscopy following adaptation to dar ... Full text Cite

Depth regulation of larval marine decapod crustaceans: test of an hypothesis

Journal Article Marine Biology · August 1, 1989 This study tested the hypothesis that the dimensions and symmetry of the depth regulatory window of crustacean larvae are controlled by the level of light adaptation. Responses of first and last zoeal stages of the crab Rhithropanopeus harrisii (Gould) to ... Full text Cite

Behavioral Responses of Crustacean Larvae to Rates of Salinity Change.

Journal Article The Biological bulletin · June 1989 The ontogeny of behavioral responses of larvae of the crabs Rhithropanopeus harrisii and Neopanope sayi to rates of change in salinity were analyzed with a video system. A salinity increase evoked an ascent in both species. For R. harrisii the threshold ra ... Full text Cite

Behavioral responses of a larval crustacean to hydrostatic pressure: Rhithropanopeus harrisii (Brachyura: Xanthidae)

Journal Article Marine Biology · April 1, 1989 Responses of the four zoeal stages of the crab Rhithropanopeus harrisii (Gould) to step and continuous changes in hydrostatic pressure were analyzed with a video system. Crabs were collected from the Neuse River estuary (North Carolina, USA) from June to A ... Full text Cite

Peptide analogs of the mud crab pumping pheromone: Structure-function studies

Journal Article Chemical Senses · February 1, 1989 In the mud crab, Rhithropanopeus harrisii (Gould), larval release is highly synchronous and is controlled by peptide pheromones released from the hatching eggs. The pheromones and synthetic peptide analogs, containing neutral amino acids at the arnino-term ... Full text Cite

Respiration and osmoregulation of the estuarine crab, Rhithropanopeus harrisii (Gould): effects of the herbicide, alachlor.

Journal Article Comparative biochemistry and physiology. A, Comparative physiology · January 1989 1. The effects of a sudden decrease in salinity and exposure to sublethal concentrations of the herbicide, alachlor, on osmoregulation and respiration of the crab, Rithropanopeus harrisii, were studied. 2. Crabs were hyperosmotic regulators at salinities b ... Full text Cite

Rhythms in larval release of the sublittoral crab Neopanope sayi and the supralittoral crab Sesarma cinereum (Decapoda: Brachyura)

Journal Article Marine Biology · January 1, 1989 Ovigerous females of the subtidal xanthid crab Neopanope sayi (Smith) and the high intertidal grapsid crab Sesarma cinereum (Bosc) were collected during the summers of 1986 and 1987 in the Beaufort, North Carolina (USA), area and brought into the laborator ... Full text Cite

The visual pigments of crabs - II. Environmental adaptations

Journal Article Journal of Comparative Physiology A · July 1, 1988 1. Underwater downwelling quantal irradiance spectra were measured in estuarine and coastal areas under various tidal and rainfall conditions. At midday the available spectrum near the bottom has maximal irradiance in the region of about 570 to 700 nm in t ... Full text Cite

The visual pigments of crabs - I. Spectral characteristics

Journal Article Journal of Comparative Physiology A · July 1, 1988 1. The visual pigments of 27 species of crabs from a variety of habitats were investigated by microspectrophotometry of the isolated rhabdomeric photoreceptors. The rhodopsins ranged in λmax from 473 to 515 nm (Tables 1 and 2). No evidence was found for th ... Full text Cite

Effects of the herbicide alachlor on larval development of the mud crab, Rhithropanopeus harrisii (Gould)

Journal Article Estuaries · June 1, 1988 The effects of the herbicide alachlor, in both technical grade and commercial product form (Lasso), were tested for acute toxicity on larvae of the estuarine crab Rhithropanopeus harrisii. The generalized effect is a reduction in survival and a lengthening ... Full text Cite

Absolute light intensity vs. rate of relative change in light intensity: the role of light in the vertical migration of Chaoborus punctipennis larvae

Journal Article Bulletin of Marine Science · January 1, 1988 Fourth-instar Chaoborus punctipennis larvae exhibited a light-induced positive geotaxis at high light intensity (>1.3.10-5.Wm-2) and a light-induced negative geotaxis at low light intensity (<3.10-6.Wm-2) when stimulated with light filtered to match their ... Cite

Osmoregulation of the xanthid crab, panopeus herbstii

Journal Article Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology -- Part A: Physiology · January 1, 1988 1. 1. After acclimation; the mud crab, Panopeus herbstii, hyperosmotically regulates between 10 and 28 ppt and osmoconforms above 28 ppt. Chloride ion concentration remained at a relatively constant hyperionic level at lower salinities and became hypoionic ... Full text Cite

DIEL VERTICAL MIGRATION - ZOOPLANKTON PHOTOBIOLOGY AND BEHAVIOR

Journal Article OCEANOGRAPHY AND MARINE BIOLOGY · January 1, 1988 Link to item Cite

Comparative study of crustacean larval photoresponses

Journal Article Marine Biology · December 1, 1987 Ovigerous females of four brachyuran (Cancer gracilis, Lophopanopeus bellus bellus, Hemigrapsus oregonensis and Scyra acutiforns) and two anomuran (Pagurus beringanus and P. granosimanus) species, which live as adults in coastal areas, were collected near ... Full text Cite

Peptide pheromones synchronize crustacean egg hatching and larval release

Journal Article Chemical Senses · September 1, 1987 At the time of egg hatching in the crab Rhithropanopeus harrisii, pheromones are released from the eggs. These pheromones induce a stereotypic larval release behaviour in which the female vigorously pumps her abdomen. This action breaks open the unhatched ... Full text Cite

Larval release rhythms of decapod crustaceans: an overview.

Journal Article Bulletin of Marine Science · January 1, 1987 Decapod crustaceans release larvae rhythmically in relation to lunar, light-dark and tidal cycles. Rhythms related to lunar phase are usually semilunar with larval release mainly occurring at the time of largest amplitude nocturnal ebb tides, which usually ... Cite

Behavioral responses of a sand-beach amphipod to light and pressure

Journal Article Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology · November 18, 1986 Light-oriented responses of the sand-beach amphipod Synchelidium micropleon (Barnard) in an optical arrangement that simulated the natural underwater angular light distribution were compared with previous measurements upon stimulation with a highly directi ... Full text Cite

Entrainment of the larval release rhythm of the crab Rhithropanopeus harrisii (Brachyura: Xanthidae) by cycles in salinity change

Journal Article Marine Biology · March 1, 1986 Ovigerous females of the crab Rhithropanopeus harrisii (Gould) were collected from an estuary having irregular tides and exposed to only a semi-diurnal tidal cycle in salinity change in the laboratory. A circatidal rhythm developed, in which larval release ... Full text Cite

Behavioral responses of larvae of the crab Rhithropanopeus harrisii (Brachyura: Xanthidae) during diel vertical migration

Journal Article Marine Biology · December 1, 1985 Larval Rhithropanopeus harrisii (Gould) show nocturnal vertical migration. Larval behavioral responses to different rates of increase and decrease in light intensity were measured in an apparatus with a natural angular light distribution. A central objecti ... Full text Cite

Larval release in the crab Rhithropanopeus harrisii (gould): Chemical cues from hatching eggs

Journal Article Chemical Senses · December 1, 1985 Decapod crustaceans have rhythmic larval release patterns. In the case of Rhithropanopeus harrisii substances associated with hatching eggs induce ovigerous crabs to exhibit stereotypic larval release behavior involving vigorous abdomen pumping. In this st ... Full text Cite

Photosensitivity of the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa

Journal Article Marine Biology · August 1, 1984 The light intensity and spectral sensitivities of the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa Dana were determined by measuring phototactic responses. Adult females displayed only positive phototaxis. The dark-adapted copepod, which possesses a single naupliar eye, ... Full text Cite

Copepod photobehavior in a simulated natural light environment and its relation to nocturnal vertical migration

Journal Article Marine Biology · August 1, 1984 To investigate the roles of light in initiating, controlling and directing nocturnal vertical migration, photoresponses of the adult, female copepod Acartia tonsa Dana were measured under simulated natural underwater light conditions using a video system. ... Full text Cite

Effects of hexavalent chromium on development of crabs, Rhithropanopeus harrisii and Callinectes sapidus

Journal Article Water, Air, and Soil Pollution · January 1, 1984 Survival of Rhithropanopeus harrisii larvae from hatching to first crab stage occurred in Na2CrO4 concentrations from 1.1 to 29.1 ppm. Estimated LC50 for complete zoeal development was 17.8 ppm Na2CrO4 and it was 13.7 ppm for development to first crab stag ... Full text Cite

Effects of soluble fractions of drilling fluids on development of crabs, Rhithropanopeus harrisii and Callinectes sapidus

Journal Article Water, Air, and Soil Pollution · January 1, 1984 The mud aqueous fraction (MAF) and suspended particulate phase (SPP) of low-density lignosulfonate type mud with úerrochrome added were nontoxic to larvae during the complete larval development of Rhithropanopeus harrisii. Five percent (5000 ppm, 0.5 % v/v ... Full text Cite

Control of diel vertical migration: Photoresponses of a larval crustacean

Journal Article Limnology and Oceanography · January 1, 1984 This article is in Free Access Publication and may be downloaded using the “Download Full Text PDF” link at right. © 1984, by the Association for the Sciences of Limnology and Oceanography, Inc. ... Full text Cite

Photoresponses of the copepod Mesocyclops edax

Journal Article Journal of Plankton Research · December 1, 1983 The predatory copepod Mesocyclops edax is an important component of many zooplankton communities where it typically makes extensive did vertical migrations. To describe the effect of light on adults we measured their photoresponses in the laboratory. The r ... Full text Cite

CONTROL OF EGG HATCHING IN THE CRABRHITHROPANOPEUS HARRISII(GOULD)

Journal Article The Biological Bulletin · August 1983 Full text Cite

Osmotic regulation of the krill Meganyctiphanes norvegica

Journal Article Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology -- Part A: Physiology · January 1, 1983 1. 1. The krill Meganyctiphanes norvegica is an osmoconformer in salinities from 24 to 40 ppt, with the lower lethal limit probably occurring between 20 and 24 ppt at 3-7°C. 2. 2. Haemolymph osmolality and Na+ concentration are close to those of the ambien ... Full text Cite

RHYTHMS IN LARVAL RELEASE BY AN ESTUARINE CRAB (RHITHROPANOPEUS HARRISH)

Journal Article The Biological Bulletin · October 1982 Full text Cite

Salinity perception by larvae of the crabRhithropanopeus harrisii(gould)

Journal Article Marine Behaviour and Physiology · August 1982 Full text Cite

Photoresponses of second-instar Chaoborus larvae

Journal Article Journal of Insect Physiology · January 1, 1982 The diel vertical migration of Chaoborus larvae varies with larval instar. Although light is involved in the control of vertical migration the contribution of larval photoresponses is unknown. In order to describe ontogenetic changes in larval photorespons ... Full text Cite

Chaoborus prey capture efficiency in the light and dark1

Journal Article Limnology and Oceanography · May 1981 The strike efficiency of fourth‐instar Chaoborus punctipennis larvae on different size copepods was measured in the light and dark in the laboratory. Dark measurements were made with near‐infrared illumination and a close ... Full text Cite

Acute toxicity and sublethal behavioral effects of copper on barnacle nauplii (Balanus improvisus)

Journal Article Marine Biology · October 1, 1980 This study documents the effects of short-term (24h) sublethal copper exposures on undirected swimming activity and photobehavior of Balanus improvisus stage II nauplii. All Cu treatments were static, with temperature and salinity conditions at 20°C and 15 ... Full text Cite

Phototaxis of a sand-beach amphipod: Physiology and tidal rhythms

Journal Article Journal of Comparative Physiology □ A · September 1, 1980 1. The response spectrum for phototaxis of the sand-beach amphipod Synchelidium sp. shows relatively uniform responsiveness from 460 to 600 nm (Fig. 1). 2. Animals on rising tides are more negatively phototactic and less sensitive to light than on falling ... Full text Cite

TIDAL RHYTHMS OF ACTIVITY AND PHOTOTAXIS OF AN ESTUARINE CRAB LARVA

Journal Article The Biological Bulletin · June 1980 Full text Cite

Photoresponses of Chaoborus larvae

Journal Article Journal of Insect Physiology · January 1, 1980 The diel vertical migration of Chaoborus larvae is a well known phenomenon. In order to quantify the ability of larvae to utilize underwater light cues in their migration, we measured photoresponses of fourth-instar Chaoborus punctipennis larvae in the lab ... Full text Cite

Spectral sensitivity of larvae from intertidal crustaceans

Journal Article Journal of Comparative Physiology □ A · December 1, 1979 Response spectra for positive phototaxis of the planktonic first stage larvae of 7 species of estuarine intertidal crabs were measured. Species living highest intertidally as adults generally have larvae with good ultraviolet (UV) and blue/green sensitivit ... Full text Cite

Tidal vertical migration: an endogenous rhythm in estuarine crab larvae.

Journal Article Science (New York, N.Y.) · September 1979 Field-caught larvae of the estuarine crab Rhithropanopeus harrisii have a tidal rhythm of vertical migration when maintained in constant conditions. Laboratory-reared larvae do not show this rhythm. Endogenous tidal vertical migrations aid the retention of ... Full text Cite

Sublethal effects of insect growth regulators upon crab larval behavior

Journal Article Water, Air, and Soil Pollution · February 1, 1978 Both swimming speeds and phototaxis by the four larval stages of the crab Rhithropanopeus harrisii were monitored upon chronic exposure to sublethal concentrations of the insect growth regulators methroprene (AltosidR: ZR-515), hydroprene (AltozarR: ZR-512 ... Full text Cite

Effects of neurochemicals upon a dinoflagellate photoresponse.

Journal Article The Journal of protozoology · August 1977 Photoresponsiveness by Gymnodinium splendens Lebour was monitored quantitatively by a microscope-television system. Exposure to the catecholamines DOPA and Dopamine caused a decrease in light sensitivity, while 0.01 mM norepinephine, or isoproterenol did n ... Full text Cite

Occurrence of a shadow response among brachyuran larvae

Journal Article Marine Biology · February 1, 1977 A closed-circuit television system was used to study phototaxis and behavioral responses upon sudden decreases in light intensity in light-adapted Stage I zoeae from 7 species of Brachyura (Panopeus herbstii, Menippe mercenaria, Uca pugilator, Callinectes ... Full text Cite

A SHADOW RESPONSE IN A LARVAL CRUSTACEAN

Journal Article The Biological Bulletin · August 1976 Full text Cite

The effect of temperature on phototaxis and geotaxis by larvae of the crab Rhithropanopeus harrisi (Gould)

Journal Article Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology · January 1, 1976 Investigations of the effect of sudden temperature change on the phototaxis of Stage I and IV zoeae upon stimulation from horizontal and vertical directions with 500-nm light indicate a temperature-induced geotactic response in larvae of the crab Rhithropa ... Full text Cite

THE ONTOGENY AND SPECTRAL SENSITIVITY OF POLAROTAXIS IN LARVAE OF THE CRAB RHITHROPANOPEUS HARRISI (GOULD).

Journal Article The Biological bulletin · August 1975 1. To determine the ontogeny plus the intensity and spectral characteristics of polarotaxis in larvae of the crab, Rhithropanopeus harrisi, swimming paths in relation to the e-vector direction of linearly polarized light were monitored and recorded with a ... Full text Cite

The ontogeny of phototaxis by larvae of the crab Rhithropanopeus harrisii

Journal Article Marine Biology · July 1, 1974 Phototaxis by each zoeal stage of the crab Rhithropanopeus harrisii (Gould) was quantitatively measured by means of a microscope closed-circuit television system. The megalopa stage is indifferent to light stimulation and was thus not tested. The action sp ... Full text Cite

Phototaxis by the dinoflagellate Gymnodinium splendens Lebour.

Journal Article The Journal of protozoology · May 1974 Full text Cite

Negative phototaxis in crustacean larvae: Possible functional significance

Journal Article Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology · January 1, 1974 Phototaxis of stage I larvae of the crab Rhithropanopeus harrisi (Gould) was quantitatively monitored by a microscope-television system. After dark-adaptation there is negative phototaxis only at the highest stimulus intensity, whereas the animals respond ... Full text Cite

Evidence for E-vector and light intensity pattern discrimination by the teleost Dermogenys

Journal Article Journal of Comparative Physiology · June 1, 1973 1. Azimuth orientation in the halfbeak fish Dermogenys was studied in the laboratory to find out whether its spontaneous heading directions in a vertical beam of linearly polarized light involve perception of the e-vector per se or merely of concomitant li ... Full text Cite

Phototaxis in a dinoflagellate: Action spectra as evidence for a two-pigment system.

Journal Article Planta · June 1973 Action spectra were determined in the UV region of the spectrum for the first phase of the phototactic response (stop response) and for the phytochrome pigment associated with this response in the dinoflagellate Gyrodinium dorsum Kofoid. Differences betwee ... Full text Cite

Field demonstration of polarotaxis in the fish Zenarchopterus

Journal Article Journal of Experimental Zoology · January 1, 1972 Oriented responses to linearly polarized light have been quantitatively confirmed in the marine teleost Zenarchopterus studied in underwater field experiments with the aid of SCUBA. During six successive mornings 2485 heading measurements were made on 36 u ... Full text Cite

The circadian rhythm of a behavioral photoresponse in the dinoflagellate Gyrodinium dorsum

Journal Article Planta · September 1, 1970 The circadian rhythm of the photoresponse to blue light in the dinoflagellate Gyrodinium dorsum Kofoid was investigated by the use of a closed circuit television system. The initial cessation of movement upon stimulation (stop-response) was used as the ind ... Full text Cite

Change in the photoresponse action spectrum of the dinoflagellate Gyrodinium dorsum Kofoid by red and far-red light

Journal Article Planta · September 1, 1970 Using cessation of movement (stop-response) as an index for light reception by the dinoflagellate Gyrodinium dorsum Kofoid, an association was shown between the blue-light action-spectrum maximum for this response and prior exposure of the organism to red ... Full text Cite

The investigation of the behavior of microorganisms by computerized television.

Journal Article IEEE transactions on bio-medical engineering · July 1970 Full text Cite

Red and far-red light effects on a short-term behavioral response of a dinoflagellate.

Journal Article Science (New York, N.Y.) · September 1968 Cessation of movement (stop response) is used as a criterion for light reception by the dinoflagellate Gyrodinium dorsum Kofoid. Brief irradiation (2 seconds at 470 nanometers) elicits a stop response in cells any time during the 6-minute interval after re ... Full text Cite