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William Michael Bullock

Assistant Professor of Anesthesiology
Anesthesiology, Regional

Selected Publications


Perioperative Analgesia in Spine Surgery: A Review of Current Data Supporting Future Direction.

Journal Article Orthop Clin North Am · October 2023 This Clinical Research discusses the diverse nature of spine surgery procedures and the use of multimodal analgesia within enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) protocols to improve patient outcomes. Spine surgeries range from minor decompressions to exte ... Full text Link to item Cite

Awake Spinal Fusion Is Associated with Reduced Length of Stay, Opioid Use, and Time to Ambulation Compared to General Anesthesia: A Matched Cohort Study.

Journal Article World Neurosurg · August 2023 OBJECTIVE: There is increasing interest in performing awake spinal fusion under spinal anesthesia (SA). Evidence supporting SA has been positive, albeit limited. The authors set out to investigate the effects of SA versus general anesthesia (GA) for spinal ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Awake spinal anesthesia facilitates spine surgery in poor surgical candidates: A case series.

Journal Article Neurochirurgie · May 2023 BACKGROUND: Annually, hundreds of thousands of patients undergo surgery for degenerative spine disease (DSD). This represents only a fraction of patients that present for surgical consideration. Procedures are often avoided due to comorbidities that make p ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Interscalene block with liposomal bupivacaine versus continuous interscalene catheter in primary total shoulder arthroplasty.

Journal Article J Shoulder Elbow Surg · October 2022 BACKGROUND: Multimodal pain regimens in total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) now include regional anesthetic techniques. Historically, regional anesthesia for extended postoperative pain control in TSA was administered using a continuous interscalene catheter ... Full text Link to item Cite

Postoperative changes in cognition and cerebrospinal fluid neurodegenerative disease biomarkers.

Journal Article Ann Clin Transl Neurol · February 2022 OBJECTIVE: Numerous investigators have theorized that postoperative changes in Alzheimer's disease neuropathology may underlie postoperative neurocognitive disorders. Thus, we determined the relationship between postoperative changes in cognition and cereb ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Ultrasound-guided genicular nerve blocks following total knee arthroplasty: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

Journal Article Reg Anesth Pain Med · October 2021 INTRODUCTION: Local anesthetic blockade of the genicular nerves, known targets of radiofrequency ablative techniques for knee pain, has not previously been studied in a randomized controlled trial evaluating acute pain after knee arthroplasty. We hypothesi ... Full text Link to item Cite

Femoral artery block (FAB) attenuates thigh tourniquet-induced hypertension: a prospective randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

Journal Article Reg Anesth Pain Med · March 2021 INTRODUCTION: Prolonged tourniquet inflation during surgery frequently leads to tourniquet hypertension (TH), which is thought to arise from compression of A-δ fibers leading to sympathetically mediated C fiber activation. In the lower extremity, C fibers ... Full text Link to item Cite

Immunomodulatory lipid mediator profiling of cerebrospinal fluid following surgery in older adults.

Journal Article Sci Rep · February 4, 2021 Arachidonic acid (AA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) derived lipids play key roles in initiating and resolving inflammation. Neuro-inflammation is thought to play a causal role in perioperative neurocognitive disorders, yet th ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Cerebrospinal Fluid Proteome Changes in Older Non-Cardiac Surgical Patients with Postoperative Cognitive Dysfunction.

Journal Article J Alzheimers Dis · 2021 BACKGROUND: Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD), a syndrome of cognitive deficits occurring 1-12 months after surgery primarily in older patients, is associated with poor postoperative outcomes. POCD is hypothesized to result from neuroinflammation; ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

The relative analgesic value of a femoral nerve block versus adductor canal block following total knee arthroplasty: a randomized, controlled, double-blinded study.

Journal Article Korean J Anesthesiol · October 2020 BACKGROUND: Multiple comparative studies report that adductor canal blocks provide similar pain relief to femoral nerve blocks following total knee arthroplasty. However, adductor canal blockade fails to anesthetize several important femoral nerve branches ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

A protocol to reduce self-reported pain scores and adverse events following lumbar punctures in older adults.

Journal Article J Neurol · July 2020 OBJECTIVE: Lumbar punctures (LPs) are important for obtaining CSF in neurology studies but are associated with adverse events and feared by many patients. We determined adverse event rates and pain scores in patients prospectively enrolled in two cohort st ... Full text Link to item Cite

Flow Cytometry Characterization of Cerebrospinal Fluid Monocytes in Patients With Postoperative Cognitive Dysfunction: A Pilot Study.

Journal Article Anesth Analg · November 2019 Animal models suggest postoperative cognitive dysfunction may be caused by brain monocyte influx. To study this in humans, we developed a flow cytometry panel to profile cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples collected before and after major noncardiac surgery ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Continuous adductor canal blockade facilitates increased home discharge and decreased opioid consumption after total knee arthroplasty.

Journal Article Knee · June 2019 BACKGROUND: There is a growing interest in avoiding discharging patients to rehab to maximize outcome and minimize complications after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). In addition, use of postoperative pain pathways that minimize opioid use is critical amids ... Full text Link to item Cite

The INTUIT Study: Investigating Neuroinflammation Underlying Postoperative Cognitive Dysfunction.

Journal Article J Am Geriatr Soc · April 2019 BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Every year, up to 40% of the more than 16 million older Americans who undergo anesthesia/surgery develop postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) or delirium. Each of these distinct syndromes is associated with decreased quality of ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Ultrasound-Guided Suprainguinal Fascia Iliaca Technique Provides Benefit as an Analgesic Adjunct for Patients Undergoing Total Hip Arthroplasty.

Journal Article J Ultrasound Med · February 2017 Analgesia after total hip arthroplasty is often accomplished by the fascia iliaca compartment block, traditionally performed below the inguinal ligament, to anesthetize both femoral and lateral femoral cutaneous nerves. The course of the lateral femoral cu ... Full text Link to item Cite

Intraoperative Frontal Alpha-Band Power Correlates with Preoperative Neurocognitive Function in Older Adults.

Journal Article Front Syst Neurosci · 2017 Each year over 16 million older Americans undergo general anesthesia for surgery, and up to 40% develop postoperative delirium and/or cognitive dysfunction (POCD). Delirium and POCD are each associated with decreased quality of life, early retirement, incr ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Perioperative Analgesia in Spine Surgery: A Review of Current Data Supporting Future Direction.

Journal Article Orthop Clin North Am · October 2023 This Clinical Research discusses the diverse nature of spine surgery procedures and the use of multimodal analgesia within enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) protocols to improve patient outcomes. Spine surgeries range from minor decompressions to exte ... Full text Link to item Cite

Awake Spinal Fusion Is Associated with Reduced Length of Stay, Opioid Use, and Time to Ambulation Compared to General Anesthesia: A Matched Cohort Study.

Journal Article World Neurosurg · August 2023 OBJECTIVE: There is increasing interest in performing awake spinal fusion under spinal anesthesia (SA). Evidence supporting SA has been positive, albeit limited. The authors set out to investigate the effects of SA versus general anesthesia (GA) for spinal ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Awake spinal anesthesia facilitates spine surgery in poor surgical candidates: A case series.

Journal Article Neurochirurgie · May 2023 BACKGROUND: Annually, hundreds of thousands of patients undergo surgery for degenerative spine disease (DSD). This represents only a fraction of patients that present for surgical consideration. Procedures are often avoided due to comorbidities that make p ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Interscalene block with liposomal bupivacaine versus continuous interscalene catheter in primary total shoulder arthroplasty.

Journal Article J Shoulder Elbow Surg · October 2022 BACKGROUND: Multimodal pain regimens in total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) now include regional anesthetic techniques. Historically, regional anesthesia for extended postoperative pain control in TSA was administered using a continuous interscalene catheter ... Full text Link to item Cite

Postoperative changes in cognition and cerebrospinal fluid neurodegenerative disease biomarkers.

Journal Article Ann Clin Transl Neurol · February 2022 OBJECTIVE: Numerous investigators have theorized that postoperative changes in Alzheimer's disease neuropathology may underlie postoperative neurocognitive disorders. Thus, we determined the relationship between postoperative changes in cognition and cereb ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Ultrasound-guided genicular nerve blocks following total knee arthroplasty: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

Journal Article Reg Anesth Pain Med · October 2021 INTRODUCTION: Local anesthetic blockade of the genicular nerves, known targets of radiofrequency ablative techniques for knee pain, has not previously been studied in a randomized controlled trial evaluating acute pain after knee arthroplasty. We hypothesi ... Full text Link to item Cite

Femoral artery block (FAB) attenuates thigh tourniquet-induced hypertension: a prospective randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

Journal Article Reg Anesth Pain Med · March 2021 INTRODUCTION: Prolonged tourniquet inflation during surgery frequently leads to tourniquet hypertension (TH), which is thought to arise from compression of A-δ fibers leading to sympathetically mediated C fiber activation. In the lower extremity, C fibers ... Full text Link to item Cite

Immunomodulatory lipid mediator profiling of cerebrospinal fluid following surgery in older adults.

Journal Article Sci Rep · February 4, 2021 Arachidonic acid (AA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) derived lipids play key roles in initiating and resolving inflammation. Neuro-inflammation is thought to play a causal role in perioperative neurocognitive disorders, yet th ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Cerebrospinal Fluid Proteome Changes in Older Non-Cardiac Surgical Patients with Postoperative Cognitive Dysfunction.

Journal Article J Alzheimers Dis · 2021 BACKGROUND: Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD), a syndrome of cognitive deficits occurring 1-12 months after surgery primarily in older patients, is associated with poor postoperative outcomes. POCD is hypothesized to result from neuroinflammation; ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

The relative analgesic value of a femoral nerve block versus adductor canal block following total knee arthroplasty: a randomized, controlled, double-blinded study.

Journal Article Korean J Anesthesiol · October 2020 BACKGROUND: Multiple comparative studies report that adductor canal blocks provide similar pain relief to femoral nerve blocks following total knee arthroplasty. However, adductor canal blockade fails to anesthetize several important femoral nerve branches ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

A protocol to reduce self-reported pain scores and adverse events following lumbar punctures in older adults.

Journal Article J Neurol · July 2020 OBJECTIVE: Lumbar punctures (LPs) are important for obtaining CSF in neurology studies but are associated with adverse events and feared by many patients. We determined adverse event rates and pain scores in patients prospectively enrolled in two cohort st ... Full text Link to item Cite

Flow Cytometry Characterization of Cerebrospinal Fluid Monocytes in Patients With Postoperative Cognitive Dysfunction: A Pilot Study.

Journal Article Anesth Analg · November 2019 Animal models suggest postoperative cognitive dysfunction may be caused by brain monocyte influx. To study this in humans, we developed a flow cytometry panel to profile cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples collected before and after major noncardiac surgery ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Continuous adductor canal blockade facilitates increased home discharge and decreased opioid consumption after total knee arthroplasty.

Journal Article Knee · June 2019 BACKGROUND: There is a growing interest in avoiding discharging patients to rehab to maximize outcome and minimize complications after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). In addition, use of postoperative pain pathways that minimize opioid use is critical amids ... Full text Link to item Cite

The INTUIT Study: Investigating Neuroinflammation Underlying Postoperative Cognitive Dysfunction.

Journal Article J Am Geriatr Soc · April 2019 BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Every year, up to 40% of the more than 16 million older Americans who undergo anesthesia/surgery develop postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) or delirium. Each of these distinct syndromes is associated with decreased quality of ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Ultrasound-Guided Suprainguinal Fascia Iliaca Technique Provides Benefit as an Analgesic Adjunct for Patients Undergoing Total Hip Arthroplasty.

Journal Article J Ultrasound Med · February 2017 Analgesia after total hip arthroplasty is often accomplished by the fascia iliaca compartment block, traditionally performed below the inguinal ligament, to anesthetize both femoral and lateral femoral cutaneous nerves. The course of the lateral femoral cu ... Full text Link to item Cite

Intraoperative Frontal Alpha-Band Power Correlates with Preoperative Neurocognitive Function in Older Adults.

Journal Article Front Syst Neurosci · 2017 Each year over 16 million older Americans undergo general anesthesia for surgery, and up to 40% develop postoperative delirium and/or cognitive dysfunction (POCD). Delirium and POCD are each associated with decreased quality of life, early retirement, incr ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Pectoral Fascial (PECS) I and II Blocks as Rescue Analgesia in a Patient Undergoing Minimally Invasive Cardiac Surgery.

Journal Article Reg Anesth Pain Med · 2017 INTRODUCTION: Patients undergoing minimally invasive cardiac surgery have the potential for significant pain from the thoracotomy site. We report the successful use of pectoral nerve block types I and II (Pecs I and II) as rescue analgesia in a patient und ... Full text Link to item Cite

Schizophrenia-like GABAergic gene expression deficits in cerebellar Golgi cells from rats chronically exposed to low-dose phencyclidine.

Journal Article Neurochem Int · December 2009 One of the most consistent findings in schizophrenia is the decreased expression of the GABA synthesizing enzymes GAD(67) and GAD(65) in specific interneuron populations. This dysfunction is observed in distributed brain regions including the prefrontal co ... Full text Link to item Cite

Dr. Perrone-Bizzozero and W. Michael Bullock reply

Journal Article American Journal of Psychiatry · April 1, 2009 Full text Cite

Altered expression of genes involved in GABAergic transmission and neuromodulation of granule cell activity in the cerebellum of schizophrenia patients.

Journal Article Am J Psychiatry · December 2008 OBJECTIVE: Deficits in gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) signaling have been described in the prefrontal cortex, limbic system, and cerebellum in individuals with schizophrenia. The purpose of the present study was to further investigate cerebellar gene expre ... Full text Link to item Cite

Identification of genes expressed in the Xenopus inner ear.

Journal Article Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand) · November 2001 Recent studies indicate that hearing loss in humans has strong hereditary components associated with expression of specific genes in the auditory apparatus of the inner ear. However, the inner ear poses challenges for molecular research because the amount ... Link to item Cite