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Flame retardant associations between children's handwipes and house dust.

Publication ,  Journal Article
Stapleton, HM; Misenheimer, J; Hoffman, K; Webster, TF
Published in: Chemosphere
December 2014

Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE), flame retardants (FRs) have been ubiquitously detected at high concentrations in indoor environments; however, with their recent phase-out, more attention is being focused on measurements of exposure to alternative FRs such as organophosphate FRs (OPFRs). In our previous research, we found that PBDE residues measured on children's handwipes were a strong predictor of serum PBDE levels. Here we build upon this research to examine longitudinal changes in PBDEs in indoor dust and children's handwipes, and explore the associations between handwipes and dust for alternative FRs. Children from our previous study were re-contacted after approximately two years and new samples of indoor dust and handwipes were collected. PBDE dust-levels were significantly correlated between two different sampling rounds separated by two years; however, PBDE levels in handwipes were not correlated, perhaps suggesting that the sources of PBDEs remained relatively constant in the home, but that behavioral differences in children are changing with age and influencing handwipe levels. OPFRs [i.e. tris(1,3-dichloroisopropyl) phosphate (TDCPP), tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), tris(2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate (TCIPP)], 2-ethylhexyl-2,3,4,5-tetrabromobenzoate (EH-TBB, also known as TBB), di(2-ethylhexyl) tetrabromophthalate (BEH-TEBP, also known as TBPH), and 1,2,5,6,9,10-hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) were also ubiquitously detected in house dust samples and geometric mean levels were similar to PBDE levels, or higher in the case of the OPFRs. Significant associations between handwipes and house dust were observed for these alternative FRs, particularly for EH-TBB (rs=0.54; p<0.001). Increasing house dust levels and age were associated with higher levels of FRs in handwipes, and high hand washing frequency (>5 times d(-1)) was associated with lower FR levels in handwipes. Overall these data suggest that exposure to these alternative FRs will be similar to PBDE exposure, and the influence of hand-to-mouth behavior in children's exposure needs to be further examined to better estimate exposure potential.

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Published In

Chemosphere

DOI

EISSN

1879-1298

ISSN

0045-6535

Publication Date

December 2014

Volume

116

Start / End Page

54 / 60

Related Subject Headings

  • Phthalic Acids
  • Organophosphorus Compounds
  • Meteorology & Atmospheric Sciences
  • Male
  • Hydrocarbons, Brominated
  • Humans
  • Hand
  • Halogenated Diphenyl Ethers
  • Flame Retardants
  • Female
 

Citation

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ICMJE
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Stapleton, H. M., Misenheimer, J., Hoffman, K., & Webster, T. F. (2014). Flame retardant associations between children's handwipes and house dust. Chemosphere, 116, 54–60. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2013.12.100
Stapleton, Heather M., John Misenheimer, Kate Hoffman, and Thomas F. Webster. “Flame retardant associations between children's handwipes and house dust.Chemosphere 116 (December 2014): 54–60. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2013.12.100.
Stapleton HM, Misenheimer J, Hoffman K, Webster TF. Flame retardant associations between children's handwipes and house dust. Chemosphere. 2014 Dec;116:54–60.
Stapleton, Heather M., et al. “Flame retardant associations between children's handwipes and house dust.Chemosphere, vol. 116, Dec. 2014, pp. 54–60. Epmc, doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2013.12.100.
Stapleton HM, Misenheimer J, Hoffman K, Webster TF. Flame retardant associations between children's handwipes and house dust. Chemosphere. 2014 Dec;116:54–60.
Journal cover image

Published In

Chemosphere

DOI

EISSN

1879-1298

ISSN

0045-6535

Publication Date

December 2014

Volume

116

Start / End Page

54 / 60

Related Subject Headings

  • Phthalic Acids
  • Organophosphorus Compounds
  • Meteorology & Atmospheric Sciences
  • Male
  • Hydrocarbons, Brominated
  • Humans
  • Hand
  • Halogenated Diphenyl Ethers
  • Flame Retardants
  • Female