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Tear gas: an epidemiological and mechanistic reassessment.

Publication ,  Journal Article
Rothenberg, C; Achanta, S; Svendsen, ER; Jordt, S-E
Published in: Ann N Y Acad Sci
August 2016

Deployments of tear gas and pepper spray have rapidly increased worldwide. Large amounts of tear gas have been used in densely populated cities, including Cairo, Istanbul, Rio de Janeiro, Manama (Bahrain), and Hong Kong. In the United States, tear gas was used extensively during recent riots in Ferguson, Missouri. Whereas tear gas deployment systems have rapidly improved-with aerial drone systems tested and requested by law enforcement-epidemiological and mechanistic research have lagged behind and have received little attention. Case studies and recent epidemiological studies revealed that tear gas agents can cause lung, cutaneous, and ocular injuries, with individuals affected by chronic morbidities at high risk for complications. Mechanistic studies identified the ion channels TRPV1 and TRPA1 as targets of capsaicin in pepper spray, and of the tear gas agents chloroacetophenone, CS, and CR. TRPV1 and TRPA1 localize to pain-sensing peripheral sensory neurons and have been linked to acute and chronic pain, cough, asthma, lung injury, dermatitis, itch, and neurodegeneration. In animal models, transient receptor potential inhibitors show promising effects as potential countermeasures against tear gas injuries. On the basis of the available data, a reassessment of the health risks of tear gas exposures in the civilian population is advised, and development of new countermeasures is proposed.

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Published In

Ann N Y Acad Sci

DOI

EISSN

1749-6632

Publication Date

August 2016

Volume

1378

Issue

1

Start / End Page

96 / 107

Location

United States

Related Subject Headings

  • Transient Receptor Potential Channels
  • Tear Gases
  • TRPV Cation Channels
  • Respiration Disorders
  • Nervous System Diseases
  • Humans
  • General Science & Technology
  • Cardiovascular Diseases
  • Animals
 

Citation

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Rothenberg, C., Achanta, S., Svendsen, E. R., & Jordt, S.-E. (2016). Tear gas: an epidemiological and mechanistic reassessment. Ann N Y Acad Sci, 1378(1), 96–107. https://doi.org/10.1111/nyas.13141
Rothenberg, Craig, Satyanarayana Achanta, Erik R. Svendsen, and Sven-Eric Jordt. “Tear gas: an epidemiological and mechanistic reassessment.Ann N Y Acad Sci 1378, no. 1 (August 2016): 96–107. https://doi.org/10.1111/nyas.13141.
Rothenberg C, Achanta S, Svendsen ER, Jordt S-E. Tear gas: an epidemiological and mechanistic reassessment. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2016 Aug;1378(1):96–107.
Rothenberg, Craig, et al. “Tear gas: an epidemiological and mechanistic reassessment.Ann N Y Acad Sci, vol. 1378, no. 1, Aug. 2016, pp. 96–107. Pubmed, doi:10.1111/nyas.13141.
Rothenberg C, Achanta S, Svendsen ER, Jordt S-E. Tear gas: an epidemiological and mechanistic reassessment. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2016 Aug;1378(1):96–107.
Journal cover image

Published In

Ann N Y Acad Sci

DOI

EISSN

1749-6632

Publication Date

August 2016

Volume

1378

Issue

1

Start / End Page

96 / 107

Location

United States

Related Subject Headings

  • Transient Receptor Potential Channels
  • Tear Gases
  • TRPV Cation Channels
  • Respiration Disorders
  • Nervous System Diseases
  • Humans
  • General Science & Technology
  • Cardiovascular Diseases
  • Animals