Preclinical Immunotherapeutic Animal Models for Brain Tumors
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most malignant primary brain tumor in adults. Even with the current standard of care therapy (i.e., surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy), GBM has a poor prognosis. Innovative immunotherapeutic approaches, which engage a patient's immune system to trigger a tumor-specific immune response, have generated modest clinical improvements in selected GBM patient populations. Patients with GBM demonstrate extensive systemic immune defects that deter the efficacy of both conventional and immune-based treatments. Therapeutic strategies that simultaneously activate the immune system and neutralize the immunosuppression are critical for enhancing treatment outcomes in GBM patients. Owing to the essential role of the immune system in tumor eradication, preclinical animal models recapitulating the human disease in immunocompetent hosts are vital for assessing the efficacy of anti-GBM experimental therapies prior to testing in patients. Different immunocompetent animal models available in the preclinical setting for the evaluation of novel brain tumor therapies are summarized in this chapter.