The promise of immunotherapy in genitourinary malignancies.
A broad understanding of the tumor immune landscape has led to a revolution of immune checkpoint inhibitors in the treatment of multiple cancer types. In genitourinary malignancies, immune checkpoint inhibitors have improved outcomes for patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma and metastatic urothelial carcinoma; however, these treatments have not yet proven broadly beneficial for patients with metastatic prostate cancer. Numerous prospective trials are ongoing to further improve outcomes with immunotherapy combinations and for biomarker development to predict benefit from immune checkpoint inhibition. This perspective article highlights our current immunotherapy approaches in each of the genitourinary malignancies and the ongoing clinical trials that may inform our future treatments in renal, urothelial, and prostate cancers.