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Defining suspected child maltreatment using International Classification of Diseases codes: A scoping literature review

Publication ,  Journal Article
Liu, Y; Terrell, L; Joyce, B; Black, J; Kaplan, SJ; Gifford, EJ
Published in: Children and Youth Services Review
June 1, 2023

Background: Administrative medical records and claims are increasingly used to study prevalence of and outcomes for children exposed to child maltreatment. However, suspicion of child maltreatment is often under-documented in medical records using International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes. Although researchers have developed strategies to more broadly capture the injuries, illnesses, and circumstances that are suggestive of maltreatment, there is no consensus on which codes to use for this purpose. Objective: To systematically examine the types of research being conducted with ICD codes related to suspected maltreatment, summarize ICD codes for suspected maltreatment, synthesize the strategies researchers employed to identify the codes, and propose future direction. Methods: We searched five electronic databases for studies that reported ICD codes suggestive of child maltreatment in any medical setting, included participants aged 0–18 years, and published in a peer-reviewed journal in English. Two reviewers independently screened the titles, abstracts, and the full texts. Data were synthesized in a qualitative manner. This review was guided by the PRISMA extension for scoping reviews. Results: Thirty-seven studies met inclusion criteria. Most studies focused on determining the incidence or trends of maltreatment-related injuries or illnesses. Studies varied greatly in the codes used to identify suspected maltreatment. Only four articles reported on the validation of selected codes. ICD codes for transport accidents were the most frequently excluded co-occurring codes. Studies frequently relied on two seminal studies and two national-level guidelines. Conclusions: Substantial heterogeneity existed in the ICD codes and strategies used to identify suspected maltreatment. The age range for codes, excluded co-occurring codes, and validation of codes are areas future research should address. This review may reduce costs for future researchers so that they could choose optimal measures of suspected maltreatment from our summarized list of codes without reinventing the wheel. Our review provides a basis for the development of recommended guidelines in establishing uniform codes for suspected maltreatment that could promote public health surveillance and allow for more efficient and uniform policy or program evaluation.

Duke Scholars

Published In

Children and Youth Services Review

DOI

ISSN

0190-7409

Publication Date

June 1, 2023

Volume

149

Related Subject Headings

  • Social Work
  • 4410 Sociology
  • 4409 Social work
  • 1607 Social Work
  • 1402 Applied Economics
 

Citation

APA
Chicago
ICMJE
MLA
NLM
Liu, Y., Terrell, L., Joyce, B., Black, J., Kaplan, S. J., & Gifford, E. J. (2023). Defining suspected child maltreatment using International Classification of Diseases codes: A scoping literature review. Children and Youth Services Review, 149. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2023.106907
Liu, Y., L. Terrell, B. Joyce, J. Black, S. J. Kaplan, and E. J. Gifford. “Defining suspected child maltreatment using International Classification of Diseases codes: A scoping literature review.” Children and Youth Services Review 149 (June 1, 2023). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2023.106907.
Liu Y, Terrell L, Joyce B, Black J, Kaplan SJ, Gifford EJ. Defining suspected child maltreatment using International Classification of Diseases codes: A scoping literature review. Children and Youth Services Review. 2023 Jun 1;149.
Liu, Y., et al. “Defining suspected child maltreatment using International Classification of Diseases codes: A scoping literature review.” Children and Youth Services Review, vol. 149, June 2023. Scopus, doi:10.1016/j.childyouth.2023.106907.
Liu Y, Terrell L, Joyce B, Black J, Kaplan SJ, Gifford EJ. Defining suspected child maltreatment using International Classification of Diseases codes: A scoping literature review. Children and Youth Services Review. 2023 Jun 1;149.
Journal cover image

Published In

Children and Youth Services Review

DOI

ISSN

0190-7409

Publication Date

June 1, 2023

Volume

149

Related Subject Headings

  • Social Work
  • 4410 Sociology
  • 4409 Social work
  • 1607 Social Work
  • 1402 Applied Economics