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Comparative Effectiveness of Alternative Treatment Approaches to Secondary Hyperparathyroidism in Patients Receiving Maintenance Hemodialysis: An Observational Trial Emulation.

Publication ,  Journal Article
Platt, A; Wilson, J; Hall, R; Ephraim, PL; Morton, S; Shafi, T; Weiner, DE; Boulware, LE; Pendergast, J; Scialla, JJ ...
Published in: Am J Kidney Dis
January 2024

RATIONALE & OBJECTIVE: Optimal approaches to treat secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) in patients on maintenance hemodialysis (HD) have yet to be established in randomized controlled trials (RCTs). STUDY DESIGN: Two observational clinical trial emulations. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: Both emulations included adults receiving in-center HD from a national dialysis organization. The patients who had SHPT in the period between 2009 and 2014, were insured for≥180 days by Medicare as primary payer, and did not have contraindications or poor health status limiting theoretical trial participation. EXPOSURE: The parathyroid hormone (PTH) Target Trial emulation included patients with new-onset SHPT (first PTH 300-600pg/mL), with 2 arms defined as up-titration of either vitamin D sterols or cinacalcet within 30 days (lower target) or no up-titration (higher target). The Agent Trial emulation included patients with a PTH≥300 pg/mL while on≥6μg weekly of vitamin D sterol (paricalcitol equivalent dose) and no prior history of cinacalcet. The 2 arms were defined by the first dose or agent change within 30 days (vitamin D-favoring [vitamin-D was up-titrated] vs cinacalcet-favoring [cinacalcet was added] vs nondefined [neither applies]). Multiple trials per patient were allowed in trial 2. OUTCOME: The primary outcome was all-cause death over 24 months; secondary outcomes included cardiovascular (CV) hospitalization or the composite of CV hospitalization or death. ANALYTICAL APPROACH: Pooled logistic regression. RESULTS: There were 1,152 patients in the PTH Target Trial (635 lower target and 517 higher target). There were 2,726 unique patients with 6,727 patient trials in the Agent Trial (6,268 vitamin D-favoring trials and 459 cinacalcet-favoring trials). The lower PTH target approach was associated with reduced adjusted hazard of death (HR, 0.71 [95% CI, 0.52-0.93]), CV hospitalization (HR, 0.78 [95% CI, 0.63-0.98]), and their composite (HR, 0.74 [95% CI, 0.61-0.89]). The cinacalcet-favoring approach demonstrated lower adjusted hazard of death compared to the vitamin D-favoring approach (HR, 0.79 [95% CI, 0.62-0.99]), but not of CV hospitalization or the composite outcome. LIMITATIONS: Potential for residual confounding; low use of cinacalcet with low power. CONCLUSIONS: SHPT management that is focused on lower PTH targets may lower mortality and CV disease in patients receiving HD. These findings should be confirmed in a pragmatic randomized trial. PLAIN-LANGUAGE SUMMARY: Optimal approaches to treat secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) have not been established in randomized controlled trials. Data from a national dialysis organization was used to identify patients with SHPT in whom escalated treatment may be indicated. The approach to treatment was defined based on observed upward titration of SHPT-controlling medications: earlier titration (lower target) versus delayed titration (higher target); and the choice of medication (cinacalcet vs vitamin D sterols). In the first trial emulation, we estimated a 29% lower rate of death and 26% lower rate of cardiovascular disease or death for patients managed with a lower versus higher target approach. Cinacalcet versus vitamin D-favoring approaches were not consistently associated with outcomes in the second trial emulation. This observational study suggests the need for additional clinical trials of SHPT treatment intensity.

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Published In

Am J Kidney Dis

DOI

EISSN

1523-6838

Publication Date

January 2024

Volume

83

Issue

1

Start / End Page

58 / 70

Location

United States

Related Subject Headings

  • Vitamins
  • Vitamin D
  • Urology & Nephrology
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Sterols
  • Renal Dialysis
  • Parathyroid Hormone
  • Naphthalenes
  • Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary
  • Humans
 

Citation

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Platt, A., Wilson, J., Hall, R., Ephraim, P. L., Morton, S., Shafi, T., … Comparative Effectiveness Studies in Dialysis Patients Group, . (2024). Comparative Effectiveness of Alternative Treatment Approaches to Secondary Hyperparathyroidism in Patients Receiving Maintenance Hemodialysis: An Observational Trial Emulation. Am J Kidney Dis, 83(1), 58–70. https://doi.org/10.1053/j.ajkd.2023.05.016
Platt, Alyssa, Jonathan Wilson, Rasheeda Hall, Patti L. Ephraim, Sarah Morton, Tariq Shafi, Daniel E. Weiner, et al. “Comparative Effectiveness of Alternative Treatment Approaches to Secondary Hyperparathyroidism in Patients Receiving Maintenance Hemodialysis: An Observational Trial Emulation.Am J Kidney Dis 83, no. 1 (January 2024): 58–70. https://doi.org/10.1053/j.ajkd.2023.05.016.
Platt, Alyssa, et al. “Comparative Effectiveness of Alternative Treatment Approaches to Secondary Hyperparathyroidism in Patients Receiving Maintenance Hemodialysis: An Observational Trial Emulation.Am J Kidney Dis, vol. 83, no. 1, Jan. 2024, pp. 58–70. Pubmed, doi:10.1053/j.ajkd.2023.05.016.
Platt A, Wilson J, Hall R, Ephraim PL, Morton S, Shafi T, Weiner DE, Boulware LE, Pendergast J, Scialla JJ, Comparative Effectiveness Studies in Dialysis Patients Group. Comparative Effectiveness of Alternative Treatment Approaches to Secondary Hyperparathyroidism in Patients Receiving Maintenance Hemodialysis: An Observational Trial Emulation. Am J Kidney Dis. 2024 Jan;83(1):58–70.
Journal cover image

Published In

Am J Kidney Dis

DOI

EISSN

1523-6838

Publication Date

January 2024

Volume

83

Issue

1

Start / End Page

58 / 70

Location

United States

Related Subject Headings

  • Vitamins
  • Vitamin D
  • Urology & Nephrology
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Sterols
  • Renal Dialysis
  • Parathyroid Hormone
  • Naphthalenes
  • Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary
  • Humans