Skip to main content
Journal cover image

Validating a tool to measure spiritual beliefs, needs and resources in serious illness: The I-SPIRIT.

Publication ,  Journal Article
Steinhauser, KE; Jeffreys, AS; Perry, K; Parker, RP; Nieuwsma, J; Olsen, MK; Johnson, KS; Kirshner, MA; Majette, N; King, HA
Published in: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
July 2024

Seriously ill patients rely on spiritual and existential beliefs to support coping and approach crucial treatment and healthcare decisions. Yet, we lack gold standard, validated approaches to gathering information on those spiritual beliefs. Therefore, we developed I-SPIRIT, a spiritual needs and beliefs inventory for those with serious illness (IIR-10-050).In prior work to develop measure content, we interviewed a total of 74 participants: 20 patients (veterans with Stage IV cancer, CHF, COPD, ESRD), 19 caregivers, 14 chaplains, 10 social workers, 12 nurses, and 5 physicians. Using directed content analyses, we identified over 50 attributes of spiritual experience comprising five domains: overall importance of spirituality; affiliations and practices; impact on decisions; spiritual needs; and spiritual resources. We then translated these attributes into individual items with Likert response scales. In the quantitative validation of I-SPIRIT, we administered the instrument and a battery of comparison measures to 249 seriously ill veterans. The comparison measures captured general spiritual well-being, religious coping, and emotional functioning. Convergent and discriminant validity was examined with the FACIT-sp (faith, meaning, and purpose), BMMRS (religious/spirituality), POMS and PHQ-8 (emotional function), and FACT-G (quality of life). We administered the I-SPIRIT a week later, for test-retest reliability.Psychometric analyses yielded a final I-SPIRIT Tool including 30 items. Results demonstrated reliability and validity and yielded a tool with three main components: Spiritual Beliefs (seven items); Spiritual Needs (nine items); and Spiritual Resources (14 items). The Spiritual Beliefs items include key practices and affiliations, and impact of beliefs on healthcare. Higher levels of Spiritual Needs were associated with higher anxiety and depression.The I-Spirit measures relevance of spirituality, spiritual needs and spiritual resources and demonstrates validity, reliability, and acceptability for patients with serious illness.

Duke Scholars

Altmetric Attention Stats
Dimensions Citation Stats

Published In

Journal of the American Geriatrics Society

DOI

EISSN

1532-5415

ISSN

0002-8614

Publication Date

July 2024

Volume

72

Issue

7

Start / End Page

2148 / 2156

Related Subject Headings

  • Veterans
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Spirituality
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Psychometrics
  • Middle Aged
  • Male
  • Humans
  • Geriatrics
  • Female
 

Citation

APA
Chicago
ICMJE
MLA
NLM
Steinhauser, K. E., Jeffreys, A. S., Perry, K., Parker, R. P., Nieuwsma, J., Olsen, M. K., … King, H. A. (2024). Validating a tool to measure spiritual beliefs, needs and resources in serious illness: The I-SPIRIT. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 72(7), 2148–2156. https://doi.org/10.1111/jgs.18887
Steinhauser, Karen E., Amy S. Jeffreys, Kathleen Perry, Ryan P. Parker, Jason Nieuwsma, Maren K. Olsen, Kimberly S. Johnson, Miriam A. Kirshner, Nadya Majette, and Heather A. King. “Validating a tool to measure spiritual beliefs, needs and resources in serious illness: The I-SPIRIT.Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 72, no. 7 (July 2024): 2148–56. https://doi.org/10.1111/jgs.18887.
Steinhauser KE, Jeffreys AS, Perry K, Parker RP, Nieuwsma J, Olsen MK, et al. Validating a tool to measure spiritual beliefs, needs and resources in serious illness: The I-SPIRIT. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 2024 Jul;72(7):2148–56.
Steinhauser, Karen E., et al. “Validating a tool to measure spiritual beliefs, needs and resources in serious illness: The I-SPIRIT.Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, vol. 72, no. 7, July 2024, pp. 2148–56. Epmc, doi:10.1111/jgs.18887.
Steinhauser KE, Jeffreys AS, Perry K, Parker RP, Nieuwsma J, Olsen MK, Johnson KS, Kirshner MA, Majette N, King HA. Validating a tool to measure spiritual beliefs, needs and resources in serious illness: The I-SPIRIT. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 2024 Jul;72(7):2148–2156.
Journal cover image

Published In

Journal of the American Geriatrics Society

DOI

EISSN

1532-5415

ISSN

0002-8614

Publication Date

July 2024

Volume

72

Issue

7

Start / End Page

2148 / 2156

Related Subject Headings

  • Veterans
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Spirituality
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Psychometrics
  • Middle Aged
  • Male
  • Humans
  • Geriatrics
  • Female