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Cumulative depression episodes predict later C-reactive protein levels: a prospective analysis.

Publication ,  Journal Article
Copeland, WE; Shanahan, L; Worthman, C; Angold, A; Costello, EJ
Published in: Biol Psychiatry
January 1, 2012

BACKGROUND: Depression is associated with elevated levels of the inflammation marker C-reactive protein (CRP); yet, the direction of this association remains unclear. This study tested bi-directional longitudinal associations between CRP and depression in a sample of adolescents and young adults. The study compared the effect of current depression with the effect of cumulative episodes of depression over time. METHODS: Nine waves of data from the prospective population-based Great Smoky Mountains Study (n = 1420) were used, covering children in the community aged 9 to 16, 19, and 21 years old. Structured interviews were used to assess depressive symptoms, depression diagnosis, and cumulative depressive episodes. Bloodspots were collected at each observation and assayed for CRP levels. RESULTS: CRP levels were not associated with later depression status. In contrast, all depression-related variables displayed evidence of association with later CRP levels. The associations with depressive symptoms and diagnostic status were attenuated after controlling for covariates, particularly body mass index, smoking, and medication use. The effect of cumulative depressive episodes, however, continued to be significant after accounting for a range of covariates. Body mass index, smoking behavior, and recent infections may mediate a portion of the effect of cumulative episodes on later CRP, but cumulative depressive episodes continued to predict CRP levels independently. CONCLUSIONS: The occurrence of multiple depressive episodes exerted the greatest effect on later CRP levels. This suggests that risk for the diseases of middle and old age--cardiovascular and metabolic disease--may begin in childhood and depend, in part, on long-term emotional functioning.

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Published In

Biol Psychiatry

DOI

EISSN

1873-2402

Publication Date

January 1, 2012

Volume

71

Issue

1

Start / End Page

15 / 21

Location

United States

Related Subject Headings

  • Young Adult
  • Regression Analysis
  • Psychiatry
  • Psychiatric Status Rating Scales
  • Predictive Value of Tests
  • North Carolina
  • Male
  • Longitudinal Studies
  • Humans
  • Female
 

Citation

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Chicago
ICMJE
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Copeland, W. E., Shanahan, L., Worthman, C., Angold, A., & Costello, E. J. (2012). Cumulative depression episodes predict later C-reactive protein levels: a prospective analysis. Biol Psychiatry, 71(1), 15–21. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2011.09.023
Copeland, William E., Lilly Shanahan, Carol Worthman, Adrian Angold, and E Jane Costello. “Cumulative depression episodes predict later C-reactive protein levels: a prospective analysis.Biol Psychiatry 71, no. 1 (January 1, 2012): 15–21. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2011.09.023.
Copeland WE, Shanahan L, Worthman C, Angold A, Costello EJ. Cumulative depression episodes predict later C-reactive protein levels: a prospective analysis. Biol Psychiatry. 2012 Jan 1;71(1):15–21.
Copeland, William E., et al. “Cumulative depression episodes predict later C-reactive protein levels: a prospective analysis.Biol Psychiatry, vol. 71, no. 1, Jan. 2012, pp. 15–21. Pubmed, doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2011.09.023.
Copeland WE, Shanahan L, Worthman C, Angold A, Costello EJ. Cumulative depression episodes predict later C-reactive protein levels: a prospective analysis. Biol Psychiatry. 2012 Jan 1;71(1):15–21.
Journal cover image

Published In

Biol Psychiatry

DOI

EISSN

1873-2402

Publication Date

January 1, 2012

Volume

71

Issue

1

Start / End Page

15 / 21

Location

United States

Related Subject Headings

  • Young Adult
  • Regression Analysis
  • Psychiatry
  • Psychiatric Status Rating Scales
  • Predictive Value of Tests
  • North Carolina
  • Male
  • Longitudinal Studies
  • Humans
  • Female