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Trends in energy and macronutrient intakes by weight status over four decades.

Publication ,  Journal Article
Yancy, WS; Wang, C-C; Maciejewski, ML
Published in: Public Health Nutr
February 2014

OBJECTIVE: To examine whether the recent increasing prevalence of obesity was accompanied by variations in energy and macronutrient intakes by weight status. DESIGN: Time series of cross-sectional surveys. SETTING: National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) in the USA. SUBJECTS: Adult participants of NHANES I (1971-1974), II (1976-1980), III (1988-1994) and continuous (1999-2004). RESULTS: Daily energy intake increased over time for men (9832 to 11 652 kJ, P < 0·01) and women (6418 to 8142 kJ, P < 0·01) in all BMI classes. Percentage of energy intake from carbohydrate increased over time (men: 42·7% to 48·0%, P < 0·01; women: 45·4% to 50·6%, P < 0·01), whereas percentage of energy intake from fat (men: 36·7% to 33·1%, P < 0·01; women: 36·1% to 33·8%, P < 0·01) and protein (men: 16·4% to 15·1%, P < 0·01; women: 16·9% to 14·7%, P < 0·01) decreased. With surveys combined, daily energy intake varied among BMI classes for women (underweight/normal weight: 7460 kJ; overweight: 6799 kJ; obese I: 7033 kJ; obese II/III: 7401 kJ; P < 0·01) but not men. Percentage of energy intake from carbohydrate decreased with increasing BMI class (men: 46·6% to 45·5%, P < 0·01; women: 49·0% to 48·6%, P < 0·01) whereas percentage of energy intake from fat (men: 34·3% to 36·5%, P < 0·01; women: 34·4% to 35·4%, P < 0·01) and protein (men: 15·3% to 16·5%, P < 0·01; women: 15·2% to 16·0%, P < 0·01) increased. Interactions of survey period and BMI class were not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: Time trends in energy and macronutrient intakes were similar across BMI classes. Research examining how individuals respond differently to varying dietary compositions may provide greater insight about contributors to the rise in obesity.

Duke Scholars

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Published In

Public Health Nutr

DOI

EISSN

1475-2727

Publication Date

February 2014

Volume

17

Issue

2

Start / End Page

256 / 265

Location

England

Related Subject Headings

  • Young Adult
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Prevalence
  • Overweight
  • Obesity
  • Nutrition Surveys
  • Nutrition Assessment
  • Nutrition & Dietetics
  • Middle Aged
  • Male
 

Citation

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Yancy, W. S., Wang, C.-C., & Maciejewski, M. L. (2014). Trends in energy and macronutrient intakes by weight status over four decades. Public Health Nutr, 17(2), 256–265. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1368980012005423
Yancy, William S., Chi-Chuan Wang, and Matthew L. Maciejewski. “Trends in energy and macronutrient intakes by weight status over four decades.Public Health Nutr 17, no. 2 (February 2014): 256–65. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1368980012005423.
Yancy WS, Wang C-C, Maciejewski ML. Trends in energy and macronutrient intakes by weight status over four decades. Public Health Nutr. 2014 Feb;17(2):256–65.
Yancy, William S., et al. “Trends in energy and macronutrient intakes by weight status over four decades.Public Health Nutr, vol. 17, no. 2, Feb. 2014, pp. 256–65. Pubmed, doi:10.1017/S1368980012005423.
Yancy WS, Wang C-C, Maciejewski ML. Trends in energy and macronutrient intakes by weight status over four decades. Public Health Nutr. 2014 Feb;17(2):256–265.
Journal cover image

Published In

Public Health Nutr

DOI

EISSN

1475-2727

Publication Date

February 2014

Volume

17

Issue

2

Start / End Page

256 / 265

Location

England

Related Subject Headings

  • Young Adult
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Prevalence
  • Overweight
  • Obesity
  • Nutrition Surveys
  • Nutrition Assessment
  • Nutrition & Dietetics
  • Middle Aged
  • Male