Effect of renal function on antihypertensive drug safety and efficacy in children.
BACKGROUND: Hypertension and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are common comorbidities. Guidelines recommend treating hypertension in children with CKD because it is a modifiable risk factor for subsequent cardiovascular disease. Children with CKD are frequently excluded from antihypertensive drug trials. Consequently, safety and efficacy data for antihypertensive drugs are lacking in children with CKD. METHODS: We determined the incidence of adverse events in 10 pediatric antihypertensive trials to determine the effect of renal function on antihypertensive safety and efficacy in children. These trials were submitted to the US Food and Drug Administration from 1998 to 2005. We determined the number and type of adverse events reported during the trials and compared these numbers in participants with normal renal function and those with decreased function (defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] <90 mL/min/1.73 m2 calculated using the original Schwartz equation). RESULTS: Among the 1,703 children in the 10 studies, 315 had decreased renal function. We observed no difference between the two cohorts in the incidence of adverse events or adverse drug reactions related to study drug. Only 5 participants, all with decreased renal function, experienced a serious adverse event; none was recorded by investigators to be study drug-related. Among treated participants, children with decreased renal function who received a high dose of study drug had a significantly larger drop in diastolic blood pressure compared with children with normal renal function. CONCLUSIONS: These data show that antihypertensive treatment in children with renal dysfunction can be safe and efficacious, and consideration should be given to their inclusion in selected drug development programs.
Watt, KM; Avant, D; Sherwin, J; Benjamin, DK; Hornik, C; Li, JS; Smith, PB
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