A protocol for quantifying cardiogenic oscillations in dynamic 129 Xe gas exchange spectroscopy: The effects of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.
The spectral parameters of hyperpolarized 129 Xe exchanging between airspaces, interstitial barrier, and red blood cells (RBCs) are sensitive to pulmonary pathophysiology. This study sought to evaluate whether the dynamics of 129 Xe spectroscopy provide additional insight, with particular focus on quantifying cardiogenic oscillations in the RBC resonance. 129 Xe spectra were dynamically acquired in eight healthy volunteers and nine subjects with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). 129 Xe FIDs were collected every 20 ms (TE = 0.932 ms, 512 points, dwell time = 32 μs, flip angle ≈ 20°) during a 16 s breathing maneuver. The FIDs were pre-processed using the spectral improvement by Fourier thresholding technique (SIFT) and fit in the time domain to determine the airspace, interstitial barrier, and RBC spectral parameters. The RBC and gas resonances were fit to a Lorentzian lineshape, while the barrier was fit to a Voigt lineshape to account for its greater structural heterogeneity. For each complex resonance the amplitude, chemical shift, linewidth(s), and phase were calculated. The time-averaged spectra confirmed that the RBC to barrier amplitude ratio (RBC:barrier ratio) and RBC chemical shift are both reduced in IPF subjects. Their temporal dynamics showed that all three 129 Xe resonances are affected by the breathing maneuver. Most notably, several RBC spectral parameters exhibited prominent oscillations at the cardiac frequency, and their peak-to-peak variation differed between IPF subjects and healthy volunteers. In the IPF cohort, oscillations were more prominent in the RBC amplitude (16.8 ± 5.2 versus 9.7 ± 2.9%; P = 0.008), chemical shift (0.43 ± 0.33 versus 0.083 ± 0.05 ppm; P < 0.001), and phase (7.7 ± 5.6 versus 1.4 ± 0.8°; P < 0.001). Dynamic 129 Xe spectroscopy is a simple and sensitive tool that probes the temporal variability of gas exchange and may prove useful in discerning the underlying causes of its impairment.
Bier, EA; Robertson, SH; Schrank, GM; Rackley, C; Mammarappallil, JG; Rajagopal, S; McAdams, HP; Driehuys, B
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