Lifestyle modification and cognitive function among individuals with resistant hypertension: cognitive outcomes from the TRIUMPH trial.
BACKGROUND: Resistant hypertension is associated with increased risk of cognitive decline, stroke, and dementia. Lifestyle modification has been suggested to improve cognitive function through its salutary effects on vascular function. METHODS: Participants included 140 patients with resistant hypertension participating in the TRIUMPH trial. Participants were randomized to a cardiac rehabilitation-based lifestyle program (C-LIFE) or a standardized education and physician advice condition (SEPA). Participants completed a 45-min cognitive test battery consisting of tests of Executive Functioning and Learning, Memory, and Processing Speed. Biomarkers of vascular [flow mediated dilation of the brachial artery (FMD)], microvascular, and cerebrovascular function were also collected, in addition to weight, fitness, and ambulatory blood pressure. RESULTS: Participants averaged 63 years of age, 48% women, 59% black, and obese [mean BMI = 36 kg/m 2 (SD = 4)]. Cognitive performance improved across the entire cohort during the 4-month trial [ t -scores pretreatment = 48.9 (48, 50) vs. posttreatment = 50.0 (49, 51), P < 0.001]. Postintervention Executive Function/Learning composite performance was higher for participants in C-LIFE compared to SEPA ( d = 0.37, P = 0.039). C-LIFE intervention effects on Memory and Processing Speed were moderated by sex and baseline stroke risk, respectively ( P = 0.026 and P = 0.043 for interactions), such that males and participants with greater stroke risk showed the greatest cognitive changes. FMD [C-LIFE: +0.3% (-0.3, 1.0) vs. SEPA: -1.4% (-2.5, -0.3), P = 0.022], and microvascular function [C-LIFE: 97 (65, 130) vs. SEPA: 025 (-75, 23), P < 0.001] were improved in C-LIFE compared with SEPA, whereas cerebrovascular reactivity was not [C-LIFE: -0.2 (-0.4, 0) vs. SEPA: 0.1 (-0.2, 0.4), P = 0.197). Mediation analyses suggested that increased executive function/learning was associated with reduced ambulatory SBP levels secondary to weight loss [indirect effect: B = 0.25 (0.03, 0.71)]. CONCLUSION: Lifestyle modification individuals with resistant hypertension improves cognition, which appeared to be associated with reduced ambulatory SBP changes through weight loss. Cognitive improvements were accompanied by parallel improvements in endothelial and microvascular function.
Smith, PJ; Sherwood, A; Hinderliter, AL; Mabe, S; Watkins, LL; Craighead, L; Ingle, K; Tyson, C; Avorgbedor, F; Lin, P-H; Kraus, WE; Liao, L; Blumenthal, JA
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