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Herman Pontzer

Professor of Evolutionary Anthropology
Evolutionary Anthropology

Selected Publications


Total daily energy expenditure and elevated water turnover in a small-scale semi-nomadic pastoralist society from Northern Kenya.

Conference Annals of human biology · February 2024 BackgroundPastoralists live in challenging environments, which may be accompanied by unique activity, energy, and water requirements.AimFew studies have examined whether the demands of pastoralism contribute to differences in total energy ... Full text Cite

Increased physical activity is not related to markers of cardiometabolic health in two lemur species.

Journal Article American journal of primatology · January 2024 Insufficient physical activity is a major risk factor for cardiometabolic disease (i.e., unhealthy weight gain, heart disease, and diabetes) in humans and may also negatively affect health of primates in human care. Effects of physical activity on energy e ... Full text Cite

Energetic costs of testosterone in two subsistence populations.

Journal Article American journal of human biology : the official journal of the Human Biology Council · November 2023 ObjectiveTestosterone plays a role in mediating energetic trade-offs between growth, maintenance, and reproduction. Investments in a high testosterone phenotype trade-off against other functions, particularly survival-enhancing immune function and ... Full text Cite

Energy constraint and compensation: Insights from endurance athletes.

Journal Article Comparative biochemistry and physiology. Part A, Molecular & integrative physiology · November 2023 The Constrained Model of Total Energy Expenditure predicts that increased physical activity may not influence total energy expenditure, but instead, induces compensatory energetic savings in other processes. Much remains unknown, however, about concepts of ... Full text Cite

Lifestyle and patterns of physical activity in Hadza foragers.

Journal Article American journal of biological anthropology · November 2023 ObjectivesPhysically active lifestyles are associated with several health benefits. Physical activity (PA) levels are low in post-industrial populations, but generally high throughout life in subsistence populations. The Hadza are a subsistence-or ... Full text Cite

Total Energy Expenditure and Nutritional Intake in Continuous Multiday Ultramarathon Events.

Journal Article International journal of sport nutrition and exercise metabolism · November 2023 Continuous multiday ultramarathon competitions are increasingly popular and impose extreme energetic and nutritional demands on competitors. However, few data have been published on energy expenditure during these events. Here, we report doubly labeled wat ... Full text Cite

The provisioned primate: patterns of obesity across lemurs, monkeys, apes and humans.

Journal Article Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences · October 2023 Non-human primates are potentially informative but underutilized species for investigating obesity. I examined patterns of obesity across the Primate order, calculating the ratio of body mass in captivity to that in the wild. This index, relative body mass ... Full text Cite

Quantifying physical activity energy expenditure based on doubly labelled water and basal metabolism calorimetry: what are we actually measuring?

Journal Article Current opinion in clinical nutrition and metabolic care · September 2023 Purpose of reviewPhysical activity impacts energy balance because of its contribution to total energy expenditure. Measuring physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) is often performed by subtracting the estimated 24 h expenditure on basal meta ... Full text Cite

Applying an evolutionary mismatch framework to understand disease susceptibility.

Journal Article PLoS biology · September 2023 Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) are on the rise worldwide. Obesity, cardiovascular disease, and type 2 diabetes are among a long list of "lifestyle" diseases that were rare throughout human history but are now common. The evolutionary mismatch hypothesis p ... Full text Cite

Early childhood growth in Daasanach pastoralists of Northern Kenya: Distinct patterns of faltering in linear growth and weight gain.

Journal Article American journal of human biology : the official journal of the Human Biology Council · April 2023 ObjectivesInvestigations of early childhood growth among small-scale populations are essential for understanding human life history variation and enhancing the ability to serve such communities through global public health initiatives. This study ... Full text Cite

Total daily energy expenditure has declined over the past three decades due to declining basal expenditure, not reduced activity expenditure.

Journal Article Nat Metab · April 2023 Obesity is caused by a prolonged positive energy balance1,2. Whether reduced energy expenditure stemming from reduced activity levels contributes is debated3,4. Here we show that in both sexes, total energy expenditure (TEE) adjusted for body composition a ... Full text Link to item Cite

The fire of evolution: energy expenditure and ecology in primates and other endotherms.

Journal Article The Journal of experimental biology · March 2023 Total energy expenditure (TEE) represents the total energy allocated to growth, reproduction and body maintenance, as well as the energy expended on physical activity. Early experimental work in animal energetics focused on the costs of specific tasks (bas ... Full text Cite

Exercise is essential for health but a poor tool for weight loss: a reply to Allison and colleagues.

Journal Article International journal of obesity (2005) · February 2023 Full text Cite

Impact of energy availability and physical activity on variation in fertility across human populations.

Journal Article Journal of physiological anthropology · February 2023 Human reproduction is energetically costly, even more so than other primates. In this review, we consider how the energy cost of physical activity impacts reproductive tasks. Daily energy expenditure appears to be constrained, leading to trade-offs between ... Full text Cite

Gray squirrels consume anthropogenic food waste most often during winter.

Journal Article Mammalian biology = Zeitschrift fur Saugetierkunde · January 2023 Urban habitats provide wildlife with predictable, easily accessible and abundant food sources in the form of human food waste. Urban eastern gray squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis) are commonly observed feeding in trash bins, but we lack data regardin ... Full text Cite

Water insecurity, water borrowing and psychosocial stress among Daasanach pastoralists in northern Kenya

Journal Article Water International · January 1, 2023 This article quantifies Daasanach water insecurity experiences in northern Kenya, examines how water insecurity is associated with water borrowing and psychosocial stress, and evaluates if water borrowing mitigates the stress from water insecurity. Of 133 ... Full text Cite

The effects of lifestyle change on indicators of cardiometabolic health in semi-nomadic pastoralists.

Journal Article Evolution, medicine, and public health · January 2023 Background and objectivesNon-communicable disease risk and the epidemic of cardiometabolic diseases continue to grow across the expanding industrialized world. Probing the relationships between evolved human physiology and modern socioecological c ... Full text Cite

Effect of influenza vaccination on resting metabolic rate and c-reactive protein concentrations in healthy young adults.

Journal Article PloS one · January 2023 ObjectivesChronic immune activation and severe inflammatory states are positively associated with resting metabolic rate (RMR; kcal/day), but the impacts of mild immune stimuli on metabolism are poorly understood. This study investigates the withi ... Full text Cite

Total daily energy expenditure and elevated water turnover in a small-scale semi-nomadic pastoralist society from Northern Kenya.

Conference Annals of human biology · February 2024 BackgroundPastoralists live in challenging environments, which may be accompanied by unique activity, energy, and water requirements.AimFew studies have examined whether the demands of pastoralism contribute to differences in total energy ... Full text Cite

Increased physical activity is not related to markers of cardiometabolic health in two lemur species.

Journal Article American journal of primatology · January 2024 Insufficient physical activity is a major risk factor for cardiometabolic disease (i.e., unhealthy weight gain, heart disease, and diabetes) in humans and may also negatively affect health of primates in human care. Effects of physical activity on energy e ... Full text Cite

Energetic costs of testosterone in two subsistence populations.

Journal Article American journal of human biology : the official journal of the Human Biology Council · November 2023 ObjectiveTestosterone plays a role in mediating energetic trade-offs between growth, maintenance, and reproduction. Investments in a high testosterone phenotype trade-off against other functions, particularly survival-enhancing immune function and ... Full text Cite

Energy constraint and compensation: Insights from endurance athletes.

Journal Article Comparative biochemistry and physiology. Part A, Molecular & integrative physiology · November 2023 The Constrained Model of Total Energy Expenditure predicts that increased physical activity may not influence total energy expenditure, but instead, induces compensatory energetic savings in other processes. Much remains unknown, however, about concepts of ... Full text Cite

Lifestyle and patterns of physical activity in Hadza foragers.

Journal Article American journal of biological anthropology · November 2023 ObjectivesPhysically active lifestyles are associated with several health benefits. Physical activity (PA) levels are low in post-industrial populations, but generally high throughout life in subsistence populations. The Hadza are a subsistence-or ... Full text Cite

Total Energy Expenditure and Nutritional Intake in Continuous Multiday Ultramarathon Events.

Journal Article International journal of sport nutrition and exercise metabolism · November 2023 Continuous multiday ultramarathon competitions are increasingly popular and impose extreme energetic and nutritional demands on competitors. However, few data have been published on energy expenditure during these events. Here, we report doubly labeled wat ... Full text Cite

The provisioned primate: patterns of obesity across lemurs, monkeys, apes and humans.

Journal Article Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences · October 2023 Non-human primates are potentially informative but underutilized species for investigating obesity. I examined patterns of obesity across the Primate order, calculating the ratio of body mass in captivity to that in the wild. This index, relative body mass ... Full text Cite

Quantifying physical activity energy expenditure based on doubly labelled water and basal metabolism calorimetry: what are we actually measuring?

Journal Article Current opinion in clinical nutrition and metabolic care · September 2023 Purpose of reviewPhysical activity impacts energy balance because of its contribution to total energy expenditure. Measuring physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) is often performed by subtracting the estimated 24 h expenditure on basal meta ... Full text Cite

Applying an evolutionary mismatch framework to understand disease susceptibility.

Journal Article PLoS biology · September 2023 Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) are on the rise worldwide. Obesity, cardiovascular disease, and type 2 diabetes are among a long list of "lifestyle" diseases that were rare throughout human history but are now common. The evolutionary mismatch hypothesis p ... Full text Cite

Early childhood growth in Daasanach pastoralists of Northern Kenya: Distinct patterns of faltering in linear growth and weight gain.

Journal Article American journal of human biology : the official journal of the Human Biology Council · April 2023 ObjectivesInvestigations of early childhood growth among small-scale populations are essential for understanding human life history variation and enhancing the ability to serve such communities through global public health initiatives. This study ... Full text Cite

Total daily energy expenditure has declined over the past three decades due to declining basal expenditure, not reduced activity expenditure.

Journal Article Nat Metab · April 2023 Obesity is caused by a prolonged positive energy balance1,2. Whether reduced energy expenditure stemming from reduced activity levels contributes is debated3,4. Here we show that in both sexes, total energy expenditure (TEE) adjusted for body composition a ... Full text Link to item Cite

The fire of evolution: energy expenditure and ecology in primates and other endotherms.

Journal Article The Journal of experimental biology · March 2023 Total energy expenditure (TEE) represents the total energy allocated to growth, reproduction and body maintenance, as well as the energy expended on physical activity. Early experimental work in animal energetics focused on the costs of specific tasks (bas ... Full text Cite

Exercise is essential for health but a poor tool for weight loss: a reply to Allison and colleagues.

Journal Article International journal of obesity (2005) · February 2023 Full text Cite

Impact of energy availability and physical activity on variation in fertility across human populations.

Journal Article Journal of physiological anthropology · February 2023 Human reproduction is energetically costly, even more so than other primates. In this review, we consider how the energy cost of physical activity impacts reproductive tasks. Daily energy expenditure appears to be constrained, leading to trade-offs between ... Full text Cite

Gray squirrels consume anthropogenic food waste most often during winter.

Journal Article Mammalian biology = Zeitschrift fur Saugetierkunde · January 2023 Urban habitats provide wildlife with predictable, easily accessible and abundant food sources in the form of human food waste. Urban eastern gray squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis) are commonly observed feeding in trash bins, but we lack data regardin ... Full text Cite

Water insecurity, water borrowing and psychosocial stress among Daasanach pastoralists in northern Kenya

Journal Article Water International · January 1, 2023 This article quantifies Daasanach water insecurity experiences in northern Kenya, examines how water insecurity is associated with water borrowing and psychosocial stress, and evaluates if water borrowing mitigates the stress from water insecurity. Of 133 ... Full text Cite

The effects of lifestyle change on indicators of cardiometabolic health in semi-nomadic pastoralists.

Journal Article Evolution, medicine, and public health · January 2023 Background and objectivesNon-communicable disease risk and the epidemic of cardiometabolic diseases continue to grow across the expanding industrialized world. Probing the relationships between evolved human physiology and modern socioecological c ... Full text Cite

Effect of influenza vaccination on resting metabolic rate and c-reactive protein concentrations in healthy young adults.

Journal Article PloS one · January 2023 ObjectivesChronic immune activation and severe inflammatory states are positively associated with resting metabolic rate (RMR; kcal/day), but the impacts of mild immune stimuli on metabolism are poorly understood. This study investigates the withi ... Full text Cite

Evolutionary Changes in Physical Activity, Diet, and Energy Expenditure: Implications for the Prevention of Obesity

Chapter · January 1, 2023 Obesity and related metabolic diseases are recent phenomena, products of our increasingly industrialized world. Our Paleolithic hunter-gatherer ancestors and the subsistence farming communities that succeeded them were largely protected from these diseases ... Full text Cite

Variation in human water turnover associated with environmental and lifestyle factors.

Journal Article Science · November 25, 2022 Water is essential for survival, but one in three individuals worldwide (2.2 billion people) lacks access to safe drinking water. Water intake requirements largely reflect water turnover (WT), the water used by the body each day. We investigated the determ ... Full text Link to item Cite

Comparing walking and running in persistence hunting.

Journal Article Journal of human evolution · November 2022 It has been proposed that humans' exceptional locomotor endurance evolved partly with foraging in hot open habitats and subsequently about 2 million years ago with persistence hunting, for which endurance running was instrumental. However, persistence hunt ... Full text Cite

Variability in energy expenditure is much greater in males than females.

Journal Article J Hum Evol · October 2022 In mammals, trait variation is often reported to be greater among males than females. However, to date, mainly only morphological traits have been studied. Energy expenditure represents the metabolic costs of multiple physical, physiological, and behaviora ... Full text Link to item Cite

Human total, basal and activity energy expenditures are independent of ambient environmental temperature.

Journal Article iScience · August 19, 2022 Lower ambient temperature (Ta) requires greater energy expenditure to sustain body temperature. However, effects of Ta on human energetics may be buffered by environmental modification and behavioral compensation. We used the IAEA DLW database for adults i ... Full text Link to item Cite

The co-occurrence of water insecurity and food insecurity among Daasanach pastoralists in northern Kenya.

Journal Article Public health nutrition · August 2022 ObjectiveWater plays a critical role in the production of food and preparation of nutritious meals, yet few studies have examined the relationship between water and food insecurity. The primary objective of this study, therefore, was to examine ho ... Full text Cite

Cross-cultural variation in thirst perception in hot-humid and hot-arid environments: Evidence from two small-scale populations.

Journal Article American journal of human biology : the official journal of the Human Biology Council · June 2022 ObjectivesThirst is an evolved central homeostatic feedback system that helps regulate body water for survival. Little research has examined how early development and exposure to extreme environments and water availability affect thirst perception ... Full text Cite

Balancing growth, reproduction, maintenance, and activity in evolved energy economies.

Journal Article Current biology : CB · June 2022 Economic models predominate in life history research, which investigates the allocation of an organism's resources to growth, reproduction, and maintenance. These approaches typically employ a heuristic Y model of resource allocation, which predicts trade- ... Full text Cite

Reindeer herders from subarctic Finland exhibit high total energy expenditure and low energy intake during the autumn herd roundup.

Conference American journal of human biology : the official journal of the Human Biology Council · April 2022 ObjectiveHigh levels of total energy expenditure (TEE, kcal/day) have been documented among numerous human populations such as tropical climate horticulturalists and high-altitude agriculturalists. However, less work has been conducted among highl ... Full text Cite

Total energy expenditure is repeatable in adults but not associated with short-term changes in body composition.

Journal Article Nat Commun · January 10, 2022 Low total energy expenditure (TEE, MJ/d) has been a hypothesized risk factor for weight gain, but repeatability of TEE, a critical variable in longitudinal studies of energy balance, is understudied. We examine repeated doubly labeled water (DLW) measureme ... Full text Link to item Cite

Physical Activity and Total Daily Energy Expenditure in Older US Adults: Constrained versus Additive Models.

Journal Article Medicine and science in sports and exercise · January 2022 PurposeThis study aimed to examine the shape of the relationship between physical activity (PA) and total energy expenditure (TEE) and to explore the role of energy balance status (negative, stable, positive) in influencing this association.Me ... Full text Cite

Balancing the scales: Preliminary investigation of total energy expenditure and daily metabolizable energy intake in Matschie's tree kangaroo (Dendrolagus matschiei).

Journal Article PloS one · January 2022 Matschie's tree kangaroo (Dendrolagus matschiei) is an endangered arboreal marsupial native to Papua New Guinea. Detailed field studies of its behavior and ecology are scarce due largely to its occupation of remote cloud forests and cryptic nature. Althoug ... Full text Cite

Daily physical activity is negatively associated with thyroid hormone levels, inflammation, and immune system markers among men and women in the NHANES dataset.

Journal Article PloS one · January 2022 The acute effects of exercise on metabolic energy expenditure and inflammation are well studied, but the long-term effects of regular daily physical activity on metabolic and endocrine effects are less clear. Further, prior studies investigating the impact ... Full text Cite

Sedentary behavior and cardiovascular disease risk: An evolutionary perspective.

Journal Article Frontiers in physiology · January 2022 A ubiquitous aspect of contemporary societies is sedentary behavior (SB), defined as low intensity activities in a seated, reclined, or supine posture. Leading public health agencies, including the World Health Organization, have recognized the strong asso ... Full text Cite

The energetics of uniquely human subsistence strategies.

Journal Article Science (New York, N.Y.) · December 2021 The suite of derived human traits, including enlarged brains, elevated fertility rates, and long developmental periods and life spans, imposes extraordinarily high energetic costs relative to other great apes. How do human subsistence strategies accommodat ... Full text Cite

Physical activity and fat-free mass during growth and in later life.

Journal Article Am J Clin Nutr · November 8, 2021 BACKGROUND: Physical activity may be a way to increase and maintain fat-free mass (FFM) in later life, similar to the prevention of fractures by increasing peak bone mass. OBJECTIVES: A study is presented of the association between FFM and physical activit ... Full text Link to item Cite

Energy compensation and adiposity in humans.

Journal Article Curr Biol · October 25, 2021 Understanding the impacts of activity on energy balance is crucial. Increasing levels of activity may bring diminishing returns in energy expenditure because of compensatory responses in non-activity energy expenditures.1-3 This suggestion has profound imp ... Full text Link to item Cite

Effects of Evolution, Ecology, and Economy on Human Diet: Insights from Hunter-Gatherers and Other Small-Scale Societies.

Journal Article Annual review of nutrition · October 2021 We review the evolutionary origins of the human diet and the effects of ecology economy on the dietary proportion of plants and animals. Humans eat more meat than other apes, a consequence of hunting and gathering, which arose ∼2.5 Mya with the genus Ho ... Full text Cite

Daily energy expenditure through the human life course.

Journal Article Science · August 13, 2021 Total daily energy expenditure ("total expenditure") reflects daily energy needs and is a critical variable in human health and physiology, but its trajectory over the life course is poorly studied. We analyzed a large, diverse database of total expenditur ... Full text Link to item Cite

Total energy expenditure of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) of different ages.

Journal Article The Journal of experimental biology · August 2021 Marine mammals are thought to have an energetically expensive lifestyle because endothermy is costly in marine environments. However, measurements of total energy expenditure (TEE; kcal day-1) are available only for a limited number of marine mammals, beca ... Full text Cite

Total energy expenditure of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) of different ages.

Journal Article The Journal of experimental biology · July 6, 2021 Marine mammals are thought to have an energetically expensive lifestyle because endothermy is costly in marine environments. However, measurements of total energy expenditure (TEE; kcal/day) are available only for a limited number of marine mammals, becaus ... Full text Cite

Hotter and sicker: External energy expenditure and the tangled evolutionary roots of anthropogenic climate change and chronic disease.

Journal Article American journal of human biology : the official journal of the Human Biology Council · July 2021 BackgroundThe dual crises of climate change and chronic, or non-communicable, disease (NCD) have emerged worldwide as the global economy has industrialized over the past two centuries.AimsIn this synthesis I examine humans' dependence on ... Full text Cite

How can evolutionary and biological anthropologists engage broader audiences?

Journal Article American journal of human biology : the official journal of the Human Biology Council · July 2021 ObjectivesWith our diverse training, theoretical and empirical toolkits, and rich data, evolutionary and biological anthropologists (EBAs) have much to contribute to research and policy decisions about climate change and other pressing social issu ... Full text Cite

Determinants of climbing energetic costs in humans.

Journal Article The Journal of experimental biology · July 2021 Previous studies in primates and other animals have shown that mass-specific cost of transport (J kg-1 m-1) for climbing is independent of body size across species, but little is known about within-species allometry of climbing costs or the effects of diff ... Full text Cite

Energetic and endurance constraints on great ape quadrupedalism and the benefits of hominin bipedalism.

Journal Article Evolutionary anthropology · July 2021 Bipedal walking was one of the first key behavioral traits that defined the evolution of early hominins. While it is not possible to identify specific selection pressures underlying bipedal evolution, we can better understand how the adoption of bipedalism ... Full text Cite

Drinking water salinity is associated with hypertension and hyperdilute urine among Daasanach pastoralists in Northern Kenya.

Journal Article The Science of the total environment · May 2021 Water salinity is a growing global environmental health concern. However, little is known about the relation between water salinity and chronic health outcomes in non-coastal, lean populations. Daasanach pastoralists living in northern Kenya traditionally ... Full text Cite

Gendered movement ecology and landscape use in Hadza hunter-gatherers.

Journal Article Nature human behaviour · April 2021 Understanding how gendered economic roles structure space use is critical to evolutionary models of foraging behaviour, social organization and cognition. Here, we examine hunter-gatherer spatial behaviour on a very large scale, using GPS devices worn by H ... Full text Cite

Evolution of water conservation in humans.

Journal Article Current biology : CB · April 2021 To sustain life, humans and other terrestrial animals must maintain a tight balance of water gain and water loss each day.1-3 However, the evolution of human water balance physiology is poorly understood due to the absence of comparative measure ... Full text Cite

Childhood Daily Energy Expenditure Does Not Decrease with Market Integration and Is Not Related to Adiposity in Amazonia.

Journal Article The Journal of nutrition · March 2021 BackgroundChildhood overweight and obesity (OW/OB) is increasingly centered in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) as rural populations experience market integration and lifeway change. Most explanatory studies have relied on imprecise estima ... Full text Cite

Metabolism myths

Journal Article New Scientist · February 27, 2021 To discover the truth about diet and exercise, we need to look at our evolutionary past, says anthropologist Herman Pontzer ... Full text Cite

A standard calculation methodology for human doubly labeled water studies.

Journal Article Cell Rep Med · February 16, 2021 The doubly labeled water (DLW) method measures total energy expenditure (TEE) in free-living subjects. Several equations are used to convert isotopic data into TEE. Using the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) DLW database (5,756 measurements of adu ... Full text Link to item Cite

Hydration in relation to water insecurity, heat index, and lactation status in two small-scale populations in hot-humid and hot-arid environments.

Journal Article American journal of human biology : the official journal of the Human Biology Council · January 2021 Featured Publication ObjectivesThis study compared the prevalence of concentrated urine (urine specific gravity ≥1.021), an indicator of hypohydration, across Tsimane' hunter-forager-horticulturalists living in hot-humid lowland Bolivia and Daasanach agropastoralists ... Full text Cite

Metabolism myths

Journal Article NEW SCIENTIST · 2021 Cite

Daily Physical Activity is Associated with Suppressed Immune Activity in US Adults

Conference AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY · 2021 Cite

Effects of physical activity and relatedness on metabolic phenotype in ring-tailed lemurs

Conference AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY · 2021 Cite

Ageing and physical function in East African foragers and pastoralists.

Journal Article Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences · November 2020 Human lifespans are exceptionally long compared with those of other primates. A key element in exploring the evolution of human longevity is understanding how modern humans grow older. Our current understanding of common age-related changes in human health ... Full text Cite

Air temperature and diet influence body composition and water turnover in zoo-living African elephants (Loxodonta africana).

Journal Article Royal Society open science · November 2020 African elephants, the largest land animal, face particular physiological challenges in captivity and the wild. Captive elephants can become over- or under-conditioned with inadequate exercise and diet management. Few studies have quantified body compositi ... Full text Cite

Ranging Ecology: The View from Above.

Journal Article Current biology : CB · November 2020 Featured Publication Animals use a variety of strategies to navigate their world, but few are thought to have detailed mental maps of their landscapes. New research with our closest relatives suggests chimpanzees may use cognitive maps to find the most energy efficient routes. ... Full text Cite

Air temperature and diet influence body composition and water turnover in zoo-living African elephants (Loxodonta africana): Water turnover in African elephants

Journal Article Royal Society Open Science · November 1, 2020 African elephants, the largest land animal, face particular physiological challenges in captivity and the wild. Captive elephants can become over- or under-conditioned with inadequate exercise and diet management. Few studies have quantified body compositi ... Full text Cite

How to sit

Journal Article New Scientist · July 18, 2020 Far from being a fast track to ill-health, sitting can be good for us, find Herman Pontzer and David Raichlen. The trick is how you do it ... Full text Cite

Sitting, squatting, and the evolutionary biology of human inactivity.

Journal Article Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America · March 2020 Recent work suggests human physiology is not well adapted to prolonged periods of inactivity, with time spent sitting increasing cardiovascular disease and mortality risk. Health risks from sitting are generally linked with reduced levels of muscle contrac ... Full text Open Access Cite

Distinct early growth trajectory among Daasanach pastoralists of Northern Kenya

Conference AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY · March 1, 2020 Link to item Cite

Effect of gait and velocity on in-vivo tibial loading in humans

Conference AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY · March 1, 2020 Link to item Cite

Climbing and Canopy access in Human Foragers is not limited by Grip Strength or Endurance

Conference AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY · March 1, 2020 Link to item Cite

How to make a bipedal primate: 1 part phylogeny, 2 parts selection and a pinch of body size

Conference AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY · March 1, 2020 Link to item Cite

Step Counts From Satellites: Methods for Integrating Accelerometer and GPS Data for More Accurate Measures of Pedestrian Travel

Journal Article Journal for the Measurement of Physical Behaviour · March 1, 2020 The rapid adoption of lightweight activity tracking sensors demonstrates that precise measures of physical activity hold great value for a wide variety of applications. The corresponding growth of physical activity data creates an urgent need for methods t ... Full text Cite

Fitness and Fatness Are Both Associated with Cardiometabolic Risk in Preadolescents.

Journal Article The Journal of pediatrics · February 2020 ObjectiveTo determine the associations between cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and fatness (overweight-obesity) with cardiometabolic disease risk among preadolescent children.Study designThis cross-sectional study recruited 392 children ( ... Full text Cite

Dehydration and persistence hunting in Homo erectus.

Journal Article Journal of human evolution · January 2020 Persistence hunting has been suggested to be a key strategy for meat acquisition in Homo erectus. However, prolonged locomotion in hot conditions is associated with considerable water losses due to sweating. Consequently, dehydration has been proposed to b ... Full text Cite

Water turnover among human populations: Effects of environment and lifestyle.

Journal Article American journal of human biology : the official journal of the Human Biology Council · January 2020 ObjectivesTo discuss the environmental and lifestyle determinants of water balance in humans and identify the gaps in current research regarding water use across populations.MethodsWe investigated intraspecific variation in water turnover ... Full text Open Access Cite

Constraint and trade-offs regulate energy expenditure during childhood.

Journal Article Science advances · December 2019 Children's metabolic energy expenditure is central to evolutionary and epidemiological frameworks for understanding variation in human phenotype and health. Nonetheless, the impact of a physically active lifestyle and heavy burden of infectious disease on ... Full text Open Access Cite

Sex differences in respiratory and circulatory cost during hypoxic walking: potential impact on oxygen saturation.

Journal Article Scientific reports · July 2019 Energy expenditure (EE) during treadmill walking under normal conditions (normobaric normoxia, 21% O2) and moderate hypoxia (13% O2) was measured. Ten healthy young men and ten healthy young women walked on a level (0°) gradient a ran ... Full text Cite

Step on it

Journal Article New Scientist · June 15, 2019 We know exercise is good for us. But how much do we need? Anthropologist Herman Pontzer has the answer ... Full text Cite

Extreme events reveal an alimentary limit on sustained maximal human energy expenditure.

Journal Article Science advances · June 2019 The limits on maximum sustained energy expenditure are unclear but are of interest because they constrain reproduction, thermoregulation, and physical activity. Here, we show that sustained expenditure in humans, measured as maximum sustained metabolic sco ... Full text Open Access Cite

Sustained high levels of physical activity lead to improved performance among "Race Across the USA" athletes.

Conference American journal of physical anthropology · April 2019 ObjectiveTo investigate physiological and performance adaptations associated with extremely high daily sustained physical activity levels, we followed six runners participating in the 2015 Race Across the USA. Participants completed over 42.2 km a ... Full text Cite

Age-related decline in urine concentration may not be universal: Comparative study from the U.S. and two small-scale societies.

Journal Article American journal of physical anthropology · April 2019 ObjectivesEvidence from industrialized populations suggests that urine concentrating ability declines with age. However, lifestyle factors including episodic protein intake and low hypertension may help explain differences between populations. Whe ... Full text Cite

High energy requirements and water throughput of adult Shuar forager-horticulturalists of Amazonian Ecuador.

Journal Article American journal of human biology : the official journal of the Human Biology Council · March 2019 ObjectivesWe measured total energy expenditure (TEE; kcal/d) and water throughput (L/d) among Shuar forager-horticulturalists from Amazonian Ecuador to compare their daily energy and water demands to adults in other small-scale and industrialized ... Full text Cite

Persistence hunting in Levant: Both Neandertals and modern humans could run down a horse

Conference AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY · March 1, 2019 Link to item Cite

Arboreal Positional Behavior in Humans, Chimpanzees, and Gorillas

Conference AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY · March 1, 2019 Link to item Cite

Influence of physical activity on aging and frailty in human foragers

Conference AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY · March 1, 2019 Link to item Cite

Water throughput in humans and apes

Conference AMERICAN JOURNAL OF HUMAN BIOLOGY · March 1, 2019 Link to item Cite

The evolution of the human endurance phenotype

Chapter · January 1, 2019 Aerobic activities are those which can be sustained entirely by oxygen-based metabolism. The rate of oxygen consumption during an activity, called VO2, is often used as a measure of energy for aerobic activities. Activity costs tend to increase with body s ... Full text Cite

The International Atomic Energy Agency International Doubly Labelled Water Database: Aims, Scope and Procedures.

Journal Article Annals of nutrition & metabolism · January 2019 BackgroundThe doubly labelled water (DLW) method is an isotope-based technique that quantifies total energy expenditure (TEE) over periods of 1-3 weeks from the differential elimination of stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen. The method was inv ... Full text Cite

EVOLVED TO EXERCISE

Journal Article SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN · January 1, 2019 Link to item Cite

Method and rationale for recalculating dilution spaces to a single, common time point in doubly labeled water studies.

Journal Article European journal of clinical nutrition · December 2018 BackgroundThe doubly labeled water (DLW) method has become widely used in studies of energy expenditure and body composition. Researchers differ in the analytical methods used to calculate the dilution spaces for deuterium and oxygen-18. Some dete ... Full text Cite

Hunter-gatherers as models in public health.

Journal Article Obesity reviews : an official journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity · December 2018 Hunter-gatherer populations are remarkable for their excellent metabolic and cardiovascular health and thus are often used as models in public health, in an effort to understand the root, evolutionary causes of non-communicable diseases. Here, we review re ... Full text Cite

MUSCULOSKELETAL GROWTH IN WILD CHIMPANZEES WITH IMPLICATIONS FOR SOCIAL BEHAVIOR

Conference AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PRIMATOLOGY · December 1, 2018 Link to item Cite

Energy Constraint as a Novel Mechanism Linking Exercise and Health.

Journal Article Physiology (Bethesda, Md.) · November 2018 Humans and other species adapt dynamically to changes in daily physical activity, maintaining total energy expenditure within a narrow range. Chronic exercise thus suppresses other physiological activity, including immunity, reproduction, and stress respon ... Full text Cite

Alternative Energy Physiological evolution in the human lineage

Journal Article NATURAL HISTORY · September 1, 2018 Link to item Cite

Elite swimmers do not exhibit a body mass index trade-off across a wide range of event distances.

Journal Article Proceedings. Biological sciences · July 2018 There is a trade-off reflected in the contrasting phenotypes of elite long-distance runners, who are typically leaner, and elite sprinters, who are usually more heavily muscled. It is unclear, however, whether and how swimmers' bodies vary across event dis ... Full text Cite

Great ape walking kinematics: Implications for hominoid evolution.

Journal Article American journal of physical anthropology · May 2018 ObjectivesGreat apes provide a point of reference for understanding the evolution of locomotion in hominoids and early hominins. We assessed (1) the extent to which great apes use diagonal sequence, diagonal couplet gaits, like other primates, (2) ... Full text Cite

Hip extensor mechanics and the evolution of walking and climbing capabilities in humans, apes, and fossil hominins.

Journal Article Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America · April 2018 Featured Publication The evolutionary emergence of humans' remarkably economical walking gait remains a focus of research and debate, but experimentally validated approaches linking locomotor capability to postcranial anatomy are limited. In this study, we integrated 3D morpho ... Full text Open Access Cite

Locomotor-respiratory dynamics and gait frequency tuning in humans

Conference AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY · April 1, 2018 Link to item Cite

The Effect of bi-iliac breadth on thermoregulation during running

Conference AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY · April 1, 2018 Link to item Cite

Tradeoffs between immune function and childhood growth among Amazonian forager-horticulturalists.

Journal Article Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America · April 2018 Featured Publication Immune function is an energetically costly physiological activity that potentially diverts calories away from less immediately essential life tasks. Among developing organisms, the allocation of energy toward immune function may lead to tradeoffs with phys ... Full text Cite

Mechanics of archery among Hadza hunter-gatherers

Journal Article Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports · December 1, 2017 The development of the bow and arrow was an important milestone in the evolution of foraging technology. Experimental approaches to interpreting lithics and other archeological evidence for early archery have led to important insights into their manufactur ... Full text Cite

Measuring the Energy of Ventilation and Circulation during Human Walking using Induced Hypoxia.

Journal Article Scientific reports · July 2017 Energy expenditure (EE) during walking includes energy costs to move and support the body and for respiration and circulation. We measured EE during walking under three different oxygen concentrations. Eleven healthy, young, male lowlanders walked on a tre ... Full text Cite

Economy and Endurance in Human Evolution.

Journal Article Current biology : CB · June 2017 Featured Publication The evolutionary pressures shaping humans' unique bipedal locomotion have been a focus of research since Darwin, but the origins of humans' economical walking gait and endurance running capabilities remain unclear. Here, I review the anatomical and physiol ... Full text Cite

Total energy expenditure in captive capuchins (Sapajus apella).

Journal Article American journal of primatology · May 2017 Primates have markedly lower total energy expenditure (TEE; kcal/day) than other placental mammals, expending approximately 50% less energy for their mass than non-primate eutherians. However, little is known regarding interspecific variation of energy exp ... Full text Cite

Objectively Measured Childhood Physical Activity among Small-scale Populations

Conference AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY · April 1, 2017 Link to item Cite

Reduced Immune Investment with Energy Stress: Evidence from a Mouse Model

Conference AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY · April 1, 2017 Link to item Cite

walkR: A Software Package to Analyze the Biomechanics of Human Locomotion

Conference AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY · April 1, 2017 Link to item Cite

Intrinsic Manual Proportions affect the Biomechanics of Suspension

Conference AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY · April 1, 2017 Link to item Cite

Mechanics of Hip Extension Characterize Arboreal-Terrestrial Trade-offs in Hominin Evolution

Conference AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY · April 1, 2017 Link to item Cite

How Much Food do Animals Need to Walk, Run, and Climb? This Much

Conference AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY · April 1, 2017 Link to item Cite

Objectively measured physical activity in a hunting and gathering population

Conference AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY · April 1, 2017 Link to item Cite

Testing hypotheses about hominin locomotor evolution using models not analogies

Conference AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY · April 1, 2017 Link to item Cite

Physical activity patterns and biomarkers of cardiovascular disease risk in hunter-gatherers.

Journal Article American journal of human biology : the official journal of the Human Biology Council · March 2017 ObjectivesTime spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) is a strong predictor of cardiovascular health, yet few humans living in industrialized societies meet current recommendations (150 min/week). Researchers have long suggested th ... Full text Cite

Body mass index varies with event distances among elite runners but not swimmers

Conference AMERICAN JOURNAL OF HUMAN BIOLOGY · March 1, 2017 Link to item Cite

The crown joules: energetics, ecology, and evolution in humans and other primates.

Journal Article Evolutionary anthropology · January 2017 Featured Publication Biological diversity is metabolic diversity: Differences in anatomy, physiology, life history, and activity reflect differences in energy allocation and expenditure among traits and tasks. Traditional frameworks in primatology, human ecology, public health ... Full text Cite

Gait changes in a line of mice artificially selected for longer limbs.

Journal Article PeerJ · January 2017 In legged terrestrial locomotion, the duration of stance phase, i.e., when limbs are in contact with the substrate, is positively correlated with limb length, and negatively correlated with the metabolic cost of transport. These relationships are well docu ... Full text Cite

Body size and lower limb posture during walking in humans.

Journal Article PloS one · January 2017 We test whether locomotor posture is associated with body mass and lower limb length in humans and explore how body size and posture affect net joint moments during walking. We acquired gait data for 24 females and 25 males using a three-dimensional motion ... Full text Cite

The Exercise Paradox.

Journal Article Scientific American · January 2017 Featured Publication Full text Cite

High resting metabolic rate among Amazonian forager-horticulturalists experiencing high pathogen burden.

Journal Article American journal of physical anthropology · November 2016 ObjectivesResting metabolic rate (RMR) reflects energetic costs of homeostasis and accounts for 60 to 75% of total energy expenditure (TEE). Lean mass and physical activity account for much RMR variability, but the impact of prolonged immune activ ... Full text Cite

Behavior: Knowing When to Walk Away, Knowing When to Run.

Journal Article Current biology : CB · August 2016 A new model has been proposed indicating that humans and other animals weigh the metabolic cost of pursuit in deciding how fast to move toward a given reward, providing a powerful framework for understanding behavior. ... Full text Cite

Metabolic acceleration and the evolution of human brain size and life history.

Journal Article Nature · May 2016 Featured Publication Humans are distinguished from the other living apes in having larger brains and an unusual life history that combines high reproductive output with slow childhood growth and exceptional longevity. This suite of derived traits suggests major changes in ener ... Full text Cite

Response to de la Iglesia et al.

Journal Article Current biology : CB · April 2016 We wish to respond to the commentary of de la Iglesia et al. [1]. Studies comparing sleep in different communities have different goals. One frequent goal has been to determine how sleep is affected by manipulating specific 'modern' conditions. Many studie ... Full text Cite

Chewing efficiency and occlusal functional morphology in modern humans.

Journal Article Journal of human evolution · April 2016 The reduction of occlusal dimensions in early Homo is often proposed to be a functional adaptation to diet. With their smaller occlusal surfaces, species of early Homo are suggested to have reduced food-processing abilities, particularly for foods with hig ... Full text Cite

Gape cycle kinematic variance and occlusal topography in modern humans

Conference AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY · March 1, 2016 Link to item Cite

Sitting, squatting, and the evolution of human inactivity

Conference AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY · March 1, 2016 Link to item Cite

Energy expenditure and physical activity levels in captive tufted capuchins (Cebus apella)

Conference AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY · March 1, 2016 Link to item Cite

Determinants of Energetic Costs of Climbing in Humans

Conference INTEGRATIVE AND COMPARATIVE BIOLOGY · March 1, 2016 Link to item Cite

Energetics and Muscle Use of Human Climbing

Conference AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY · March 1, 2016 Link to item Cite

Energetics and Economics of Foraging in Humans and other Apes

Conference AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY · March 1, 2016 Link to item Cite

Constrained Total Energy Expenditure and Metabolic Adaptation to Physical Activity in Adult Humans.

Journal Article Current biology : CB · February 2016 Featured Publication Current obesity prevention strategies recommend increasing daily physical activity, assuming that increased activity will lead to corresponding increases in total energy expenditure and prevent or reverse energy imbalance and weight gain [1-3]. Such Additi ... Full text Cite

A unified theory for the energy cost of legged locomotion.

Journal Article Biology letters · February 2016 Small animals are remarkably efficient climbers but comparatively poor runners, a well-established phenomenon in locomotor energetics that drives size-related differences in locomotor ecology yet remains poorly understood. Here, I derive the energy cost of ... Full text Cite

Natural sleep and its seasonal variations in three pre-industrial societies.

Journal Article Current biology : CB · November 2015 How did humans sleep before the modern era? Because the tools to measure sleep under natural conditions were developed long after the invention of the electric devices suspected of delaying and reducing sleep, we investigated sleep in three preindustrial s ... Full text Cite

Energy Expenditure in Humans and Other Primates: A New Synthesis

Journal Article Annual Review of Anthropology · October 21, 2015 This review examines the proximate, ecological, and evolutionary determinants of energy expenditure in humans and primates, with an emphasis on empirical measurements of total energy expenditure (TEE). Body size is the main proximate determinant of TEE, bo ... Full text Cite

Energy expenditure and activity among Hadza hunter-gatherers.

Journal Article American journal of human biology : the official journal of the Human Biology Council · September 2015 ObjectivesStudies of total energy expenditure, (TEE; kcal/day) among traditional populations have challenged current models relating habitual physical activity to daily energy requirements. Here, we examine the relationship between physical activi ... Full text Cite

Constrained Total Energy Expenditure and the Evolutionary Biology of Energy Balance.

Journal Article Exercise and sport sciences reviews · July 2015 Featured Publication The human body adapts dynamically to maintain total energy expenditure (TEE) within a narrow physiological range. Rather than increasing with physical activity in a dose-dependent manner, experimental and ecological evidence suggests the hypothesis that TE ... Full text Cite

Humans, the high-energy ape: hominoid energetics and life history evolution

Conference AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY · March 1, 2015 Link to item Cite

Musculoskeletal growth patterns in wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

Conference AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY · March 1, 2015 Link to item Cite

A wider pelvis does not increase locomotor cost in humans, with implications for the evolution of childbirth.

Journal Article PloS one · January 2015 The shape of the human female pelvis is thought to reflect an evolutionary trade-off between two competing demands: a pelvis wide enough to permit the birth of large-brained infants, and narrow enough for efficient bipedal locomotion. This trade-off, known ... Full text Cite

Mutualism and manipulation in Hadza-honeyguide interactions

Journal Article Evolution and Human Behavior · November 1, 2014 We investigated the ecology and evolution of interspecific cooperation between the Greater Honeyguide bird, Indicator indicator, and human hunter-gatherers, the Hadza of northern Tanzania. We found that honeyguides increased the Hadza's rate of finding bee ... Full text Cite

Macronutrient contributions of insects to the diets of hunter-gatherers: a geometric analysis.

Journal Article Journal of human evolution · June 2014 We present a geometric model for examining the macronutrient contributions of insects in the diets of pre-agricultural humans, and relate the findings to some contemporary societies that regularly eat insects. The model integrates published data on the mac ... Full text Cite

Daily water turn over in humans, apes, and fossil hominins

Conference AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY · March 1, 2014 Link to item Cite

Hamstrings, moment arms, and gait mechanics in early hominins

Conference AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY · March 1, 2014 Link to item Cite

Effects of honey consumption and latitude on hunter-gatherer nutritional profiles

Conference AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY · March 1, 2014 Link to item Cite

A comparison of mediolateral ground forces in humans and chimpanzees

Conference AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY · March 1, 2014 Link to item Cite

Primate energy expenditure and life history.

Journal Article Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America · January 2014 Featured Publication Humans and other primates are distinct among placental mammals in having exceptionally slow rates of growth, reproduction, and aging. Primates' slow life history schedules are generally thought to reflect an evolved strategy of allocating energy away from ... Full text Cite

Bipedal and quadrupedal locomotion in chimpanzees.

Journal Article Journal of human evolution · January 2014 Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) habitually walk both bipedally and quadrupedally, and have been a common point of reference for understanding the evolution of bipedal locomotion in early ape-like hominins. Here we compare the kinematics, kinetics, and energe ... Full text Cite

Foot strike patterns and hind limb joint angles during running in Hadza hunter-gatherers

Journal Article Journal of Sport and Health Science · January 1, 2014 Background: Investigations of running gait among barefoot and populations have revealed a diversity of foot strike behaviors, with some preferentially employing a rearfoot strike (RFS) as the foot touches down while others employ a midfoot strike (MFS) or ... Full text Cite

Evidence of Levy walk foraging patterns in human hunter-gatherers.

Journal Article Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America · January 2014 Featured Publication When searching for food, many organisms adopt a superdiffusive, scale-free movement pattern called a Lévy walk, which is considered optimal when foraging for heterogeneously located resources with little prior knowledge of distribution patterns [Viswanatha ... Full text Cite

Muscle force production during bent-knee, bent-hip walking in humans.

Journal Article Journal of human evolution · September 2013 Researchers have long debated the locomotor posture used by the earliest bipeds. While many agree that by 3-4 Ma (millions of years ago), hominins walked with an extended-limb human style of bipedalism, researchers are still divided over whether the earlie ... Full text Cite

Trabecular evidence for a human-like gait in Australopithecus africanus.

Journal Article PloS one · January 2013 Although the earliest known hominins were apparently upright bipeds, there has been mixed evidence whether particular species of hominins including those in the genus Australopithecus walked with relatively extended hips, knees and ankles like modern human ... Full text Cite

Occlusal surfaces and chewing efficiency in modern humans.

Conference AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY · January 1, 2013 Link to item Cite

A new look at the Dynamic Similarity Hypothesis: the importance of swing phase.

Journal Article Biology open · January 2013 The Dynamic Similarity Hypothesis (DSH) suggests that when animals of different size walk at similar Froude numbers (equal ratios of inertial and gravitational forces) they will use similar size-corrected gaits. This application of similarity theory to ani ... Full text Cite

Comparing forelimb skeletal anatomy in gray squirrels and primates

Conference AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY · January 1, 2013 Link to item Cite

Primate energy expenditure and life history.

Conference AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY · January 1, 2013 Link to item Cite

Ecological energetics in early Homo

Journal Article Current Anthropology · December 1, 2012 Models for the origin of the genus Homo propose that increased quality of diet led to changes in ranging ecology and selection for greater locomotor economy, speed, and endurance. Here, I examine the fossil evidence for postcranial change in early Homo and ... Full text Cite

Metabolic hypothesis for human altriciality.

Journal Article Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America · September 2012 Featured Publication The classic anthropological hypothesis known as the "obstetrical dilemma" is a well-known explanation for human altriciality, a condition that has significant implications for human social and behavioral evolution. The hypothesis holds that antagonistic se ... Full text Cite

Relating ranging ecology, limb length, and locomotor economy in terrestrial animals.

Journal Article Journal of theoretical biology · March 2012 Ecomorphological analyses have identified a number of important evolutionary trends in vertebrate limb design, but the relationships between daily travel distance, locomotor ecology, and limb length in terrestrial animals remain poorly understood. In this ... Full text Cite

Aerobic activity in the Hadza hunter-foragers of Tanzania

Conference AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY · January 1, 2012 Link to item Cite

Hunter-gatherer energetics and human obesity.

Journal Article PloS one · January 2012 Featured Publication Western lifestyles differ markedly from those of our hunter-gatherer ancestors, and these differences in diet and activity level are often implicated in the global obesity pandemic. However, few physiological data for hunter-gatherer populations are availa ... Full text Cite

Biomechanical relationships between chewing efficiency and dental morphology in modern humans.

Conference AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY · January 1, 2012 Link to item Cite

Energy expenditure in semi free-ranging chimpanzees measured using doubly labeled water.

Conference AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY · January 1, 2012 Link to item Cite

Dental microwear texture analysis and diet in the Dmanisi hominins.

Journal Article Journal of human evolution · December 2011 Reconstructions of foraging behavior and diet are central to our understanding of fossil hominin ecology and evolution. Current hypotheses for the evolution of the genus Homo invoke a change in foraging behavior to include higher quality foods. Recent micr ... Full text Cite

The Narrow Niche hypothesis: gray squirrels shed new light on primate origins.

Journal Article American journal of physical anthropology · April 2011 Current hypotheses for primate origins propose that nails and primate-like grasping hands and feet were important early adaptations for feeding in fine branches. Comparative research in this area has focused on instances of convergence in extant animals, s ... Full text Cite

LIFE HISTORY JUST ISN'T HIP: HUMAN EVOLUTION WITHOUT AN 'OBSTETRIC DILEMMA'

Conference JOURNAL OF VERTEBRATE PALEONTOLOGY · January 1, 2011 Link to item Cite

Keeping their friends close? Contrasting models of social association in Hadza hunter-gatherers

Conference AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY · January 1, 2011 Link to item Cite

Daily energy expenditure in highly active humans in a natural temperate environment.

Conference AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY · January 1, 2011 Link to item Cite

Levy walks in hunter-gatherers: when are random walks an optimal search strategy?

Conference AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY · January 1, 2011 Link to item Cite

Energetics-not pelvic constraints-determine human gestation length and altriciality

Conference AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY · January 1, 2011 Link to item Cite

Hadza forager energetics and the evolution of the human metabolic strategy.

Conference AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY · January 1, 2011 Link to item Cite

Waddling and toddling: the biomechanical effects of an immature gait.

Journal Article American journal of physical anthropology · September 2010 Femoral shape changes during the course of human growth, transitioning from a subcircular tube to a teardrop-shaped diaphysis with a posterior pilaster. Differences between immature and mature bipedalism and body shape may generate different loads, which, ... Full text Cite

Metabolic adaptation for low energy throughput in orangutans.

Journal Article Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America · August 2010 Featured Publication Energy is the fundamental currency of life--needed for growth, repair, and reproduction--but little is known about the metabolic physiology and evolved energy use strategies of the great apes, our closest evolutionary relatives. Here we report daily energy ... Full text Cite

Locomotor anatomy and biomechanics of the Dmanisi hominins.

Journal Article Journal of human evolution · June 2010 The Dmanisi hominins inhabited a northern temperate habitat in the southern Caucasus, approximately 1.8 million years ago. This is the oldest population of hominins known outside of Africa. Understanding the set of anatomical and behavioral traits that equ ... Full text Cite

Hominoid daily energy expenditure and the Human Paradox.

Conference AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY · January 1, 2010 Link to item Cite

Climatic and physiological constraints on human body size and shape.

Conference AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY · January 1, 2010 Link to item Cite

Biomechanics of running indicates endothermy in bipedal dinosaurs.

Journal Article PloS one · November 2009 BackgroundOne of the great unresolved controversies in paleobiology is whether extinct dinosaurs were endothermic, ectothermic, or some combination thereof, and when endothermy first evolved in the lineage leading to birds. Although it is well est ... Full text Cite

Understanding hind limb weight support in chimpanzees with implications for the evolution of primate locomotion.

Journal Article American journal of physical anthropology · April 2009 Most quadrupedal mammals support a larger amount of body weight on their forelimbs compared with their hind limbs during locomotion, whereas most primates support more of their body weight on their hind limbs. Increased hind limb weight support is generall ... Full text Cite

Control and function of arm swing in human walking and running.

Journal Article The Journal of experimental biology · February 2009 We investigated the control and function of arm swing in human walking and running to test the hypothesis that the arms act as passive mass dampers powered by movement of the lower body, rather than being actively driven by the shoulder muscles. We measure ... Full text Cite

Daily energy expenditure in orangutans measured using doubly labeled water

Conference AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY · January 1, 2009 Link to item Cite

The metabolic cost of walking in humans, chimpanzees, and early hominins.

Journal Article Journal of human evolution · January 2009 Bipedalism is a defining feature of the hominin lineage, but the nature and efficiency of early hominin walking remains the focus of much debate. Here, we investigate walking cost in early hominins using experimental data from humans and chimpanzees. We us ... Full text Cite

Great ranging associated with greater reproductive investment in mammals.

Journal Article Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America · January 2009 Most animals must travel to find food, incurring an unavoidable energy and time cost. Economic theory predicts, and experimental work confirms, that within species, increasing the distance traveled each day to find food has negative fitness consequences, d ... Full text Cite

A new computational method for simulation and optimization of hominin gait

Conference AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY · January 1, 2009 Link to item Cite

Muscle force production during bent-knee, bent-hip walking in humans.

Conference AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY · January 1, 2009 Link to item Cite

Locomotor developmental timing in humans and other apes

Conference AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY · January 1, 2009 Link to item Cite

Waddling and toddling: biomechanical effects of an immature gait.

Conference AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY · January 1, 2009 Link to item Cite

Skeletal pathology in Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii in Kibale National Park, Uganda.

Journal Article American journal of physical anthropology · April 2008 The ecological pressures shaping chimpanzee anatomy and behavior are the subject of much discussion in primatology and paleoanthropology, yet empirical data on fundamental parameters including body size, morbidity, and mortality are rare for wild chimpanze ... Full text Cite

The effect of pelvic dimorphism on locomotor cost: are women less efficient than men?

Conference AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY · January 1, 2008 Link to item Cite

The Laetoli footprints and early hominin locomotor kinematics.

Journal Article Journal of human evolution · January 2008 A critical question in human evolution is whether the earliest bipeds walked with a bent-hip, bent-knee gait or on more extended hindlimbs. The differences between these gaits are not trivial, because the adoption of either has important implications for t ... Full text Cite

Does increased ranging effort lead to fewer wasted menstrual cycles?

Conference AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY · January 1, 2008 Link to item Cite

Postcranial evidence from early Homo from Dmanisi, Georgia.

Journal Article Nature · September 2007 Featured Publication The Plio-Pleistocene site of Dmanisi, Georgia, has yielded a rich fossil and archaeological record documenting an early presence of the genus Homo outside Africa. Although the craniomandibular morphology of early Homo is well known as a result of finds fro ... Full text Cite

Chimpanzee locomotor energetics and the origin of human bipedalism.

Journal Article Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America · July 2007 Featured Publication Bipedal walking is evident in the earliest hominins [Zollikofer CPE, Ponce de Leon MS, Lieberman DE, Guy F, Pilbeam D, et al. (2005) Nature 434:755-759], but why our unique two-legged gait evolved remains unknown. Here, we analyze walking energetics and bi ... Full text Cite

Effective limb length and the scaling of locomotor cost in terrestrial animals.

Journal Article The Journal of experimental biology · May 2007 Relative to body size, smaller animals use more energy to travel a given distance than larger animals, but the anatomical variable driving this negative allometry remains the subject of debate. Here, I report a simple inverse relationship between effective ... Full text Cite

Predicting the energy cost of terrestrial locomotion: a test of the LiMb model in humans and quadrupeds.

Journal Article The Journal of experimental biology · February 2007 The energy cost of terrestrial locomotion has been linked to the muscle forces generated to support body weight and swing the limbs. The LiMb model predicts these forces, and hence locomotor cost, as a function of limb length and basic kinematic variables. ... Full text Cite

Joint kinetics in chimpanzees and other mammals: Are large bodied primates unique?

Conference AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY · January 1, 2007 Link to item Cite

Niche expansion of a cryptic primate, Callimico goeldii, during polyspecific associations.

Conference AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY · January 1, 2007 Link to item Cite

The energetics of quadrupedal and bipedal locomotion in chimpanzees

Conference INTEGRATIVE AND COMPARATIVE BIOLOGY · December 1, 2006 Link to item Cite

Is arm swing active or passive during human walking and running?

Conference INTEGRATIVE AND COMPARATIVE BIOLOGY · December 1, 2006 Link to item Cite

The human gluteus maximus and its role in running.

Journal Article The Journal of experimental biology · June 2006 The human gluteus maximus is a distinctive muscle in terms of size, anatomy and function compared to apes and other non-human primates. Here we employ electromyographic and kinematic analyses of human subjects to test the hypothesis that the human gluteus ... Full text Cite

Ontogeny of ranging in wild chimpanzees

Journal Article International Journal of Primatology · February 1, 2006 We examined the relationship between juvenile age and distance traveled per day, or day range, in Kanyawara chimpanzees. Because the energy cost of locomotion is greater for small-bodied animals, we predict that day range is constrained by body size, i.e., ... Full text Cite

Trabecular bone in the bird knee responds with high sensitivity to changes in load orientation.

Journal Article The Journal of experimental biology · January 2006 Wolff's law of trajectorial orientation proposes that trabecular struts align with the orientation of dominant compressive loads within a joint. Although widely considered in skeletal biology, Wolff's law has never been experimentally tested while controll ... Full text Cite

Locomotor energetics and ranging ecology of fossil hominids.

Conference AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY · January 1, 2006 Link to item Cite

Energetics of chimpanzee locomotion: Force production during bipedal and quadrupedal walking.

Conference AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY · January 1, 2006 Link to item Cite

Linking locomotor energetics to limb design in terrestrial animals

Conference INTEGRATIVE AND COMPARATIVE BIOLOGY · December 1, 2005 Link to item Cite

A new model predicting locomotor cost from limb length via force production.

Journal Article The Journal of experimental biology · April 2005 Notably absent from the existing literature is an explicit biomechanical model linking limb design to the energy cost of locomotion, COL. Here, I present a simple model that predicts the rate of force production necessary to support the body and swing the ... Full text Cite

The effect of a "bent-knee" gait on trabecular orientation: an experiment test of Wolff's Law

Conference AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY · January 1, 2005 Link to item Cite

Why is the human gluteus so maximus?

Conference AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY · January 1, 2005 Link to item Cite

The effect of limb length on locomotor performance

Conference INTEGRATIVE AND COMPARATIVE BIOLOGY · December 1, 2004 Link to item Cite

An experimental test of Wolffs law in the knee

Conference INTEGRATIVE AND COMPARATIVE BIOLOGY · December 1, 2004 Link to item Cite

Climbing and the daily energy cost of locomotion in wild chimpanzees: implications for hominoid locomotor evolution.

Journal Article Journal of human evolution · March 2004 As noted by previous researchers, the chimpanzee postcranial anatomy reflects a compromise between the competing demands of arboreal and terrestrial locomotion. In this study, we measured the distance climbed and walked per day in a population of wild chim ... Full text Cite

The effect of leg length on human locomotor performance

Conference AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY · January 1, 2004 Link to item Cite

Chimpanzee juveniles constrain their mothers' gregariousness

Conference AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY · January 1, 2004 Link to item Cite