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Anirudh Krishna

Edgar T. Thompson Distinguished Professor of Public Policy in the Sanford School of Public Policy
Sanford School of Public Policy
Box 90245, Durham, NC 27708-0245
212 Sanford Inst Bldg, Durham, NC 27708

Selected Publications


Uneven Gains and Bottom-50 Districts: Intergenerational Educational Mobility in India

Journal Article Economic and Political Weekly · October 21, 2023 Using data from the National Family Health Survey-5 (2019–21), it is found that younger individuals (20–40 years) have made impressive gains in education. The average young Indian has a high school education—much better than their mother’s generation that ... Cite

A Range of Informality Across Cities and Slums: Understanding Precarity in Patna’s Slums Before and During the COVID-19 Pandemic

Journal Article Journal of South Asian Development · August 1, 2023 This article proposes a framework for understanding why slum residents are particularly vulnerable to economic downturns. We centre evidence from Bihar’s capital city, Patna, to examine how downturns are experienced more severely in some cities and slums t ... Full text Cite

Why Do Poorer Kids Not Move Ahead Faster? Considering the Poverty of Opportunity in Bihar and Delhi

Journal Article Economic and Political Weekly · May 13, 2023 Can a poorer individual who has a particular talent realistically hope to move up in life because they have this particular talent? This proposition is put to the test by interviewing more than 800 young individuals in rural and urban Bihar and Delhi. Find ... Cite

Tracing the Geographies of Inequality in India Beneath the Urban–Rural Divide

Journal Article Economic and Political Weekly · March 4, 2023 Spatial, that is, geographic inequalities are growing in India and other countries. Some countries are better provided with services, infrastructure, and earning opportunities. States matter and the urban–rural difference is salient to these distinctions. ... Cite

The impact of Covid-19 on household poverty: examining impacts and resilience in a 40-year timeframe in rural Rajasthan (India)

Journal Article Oxford Development Studies · January 1, 2023 To what extent has chronic poverty increased during the pandemic? In July and August 2021, we revisited seven villages of southern Rajasthan (India), where we had studied household poverty dynamics in 2002. We find that in the two decades before the pandem ... Full text Cite

A threat to life and livelihoods: examining the effects of the first wave of COVID-19 on health and wellbeing in Bengaluru and Patna slums

Journal Article Environment and Urbanization · April 1, 2022 Taking advantage of our existing dataset of 6,721 slum households in two Indian cities, we undertook six rounds of follow-up phone interviews on the impact of COVID-19 between July and November 2020 with three key informants in each of 40 diverse slums. Th ... Full text Cite

Negotiating Informality– Ambiguity, Intermediation, and a Patchwork of Outcomes in Slums of Bengaluru

Journal Article Journal of Development Studies · November 1, 2020 In developing countries, procedural ambiguity due to bureaucratic overlap and political discretion gives rise to divergence between law and practice. In this context of pervasive informality, it is important to consider how local negotiations produce dispa ... Full text Cite

The poorest after the pandemic

Journal Article Current History · November 1, 2020 Full text Cite

Precarious gains: Social mobility and volatility in urban slums

Journal Article World Development · August 1, 2020 Nearly one sixth of the global population lives in urban “slums” – areas characterized by inadequate infrastructure and tenure security. This figure continues to grow as developing countries rapidly urbanize. Yet, the implications of these trends for urban ... Full text Cite

Local Order, Policing, and Bribes

Journal Article World Politics · January 1, 2020 Day-to-day policing represents a fundamental interface between citizens and states. Yet even in the most capable states, local policing varies enormously from one community to the next. The authors seek to understand this variation and in doing so make thr ... Full text Cite

Food subsidy in cash or kind? The wrong debate

Journal Article Economic and Political Weekly · August 10, 2019 The need for the public distribution system varies widely across states and districts. In some districts, the poor draw more than 80% of their grain from the PDS, but in other districts this share is less than 10%. A wide diversity of relationships with th ... Cite

Beyond Poverty Escapes - Social Mobility in Developing Countries: A Review Article

Journal Article World Bank Research Observer · August 1, 2019 While social mobility in advanced economies has received extensive scholarly attention, crucial knowledge gaps remain about the patterns and determinants of income, educational, and occupational mobility in developing countries. Focusing on intergeneration ... Full text Cite

Combining satellite and survey data to study Indian slums: evidence on the range of conditions and implications for urban policy

Journal Article Environment and Urbanization · April 1, 2019 Projections suggest that most of the global growth in population in the next few decades will be in urban centres in Asia and Africa. Most of these additional urban residents will be concentrated in slums. However, government documentation of slums is inco ... Full text Cite

Obstacles to social mobility in India—and the way forward

Journal Article Current History · April 1, 2019 Open Access Cite

The contribution of pediatric surgery to poverty trajectories in Somaliland.

Journal Article PLoS One · 2019 BACKGROUND: The provision of health care in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) is recognized as a significant contributor to economic growth and also impacts individual families at a microeconomic level. The primary goal of our study was to exa ... Full text Link to item Cite

Globalised Growth in Largely Agrarian Contexts: The Urban–Rural Divide

Journal Article ESID Working Paper · September 10, 2018 Cite

Machine learning approaches for slum detection using very high resolution satellite images

Conference IEEE International Conference on Data Mining Workshops, ICDMW · July 2, 2018 Detecting informal settlements has become an important area of research in the past decade, owing to the availability of high resolution satellite imagery. Traditional per-pixel based classification methods provide high degree of accuracy in distinguishing ... Full text Cite

Promoting Social Mobility in India: Modes of Action and Types of Support Organizations

Journal Article Journal of South Asian Development · December 1, 2017 Equality of opportunity is an important ideal to uphold in a just society. Beyond its long-standing commitment to affirmative action, relatively little has been done in India to realize this ideal. Compared to other countries, Indian children raised in pov ... Full text Cite

Promoting Social Mobility in India

Journal Article · December 2017 Equality of opportunity is an important ideal to uphold in a just society. Beyond its long-standing commitment to affirmative action, relatively little has been done in India to realize this ideal. Compared to other countries, Indian children raised in pov ... Cite

Uneven Gains and Bottom-50 Districts: Intergenerational Educational Mobility in India

Journal Article Economic and Political Weekly · October 21, 2023 Using data from the National Family Health Survey-5 (2019–21), it is found that younger individuals (20–40 years) have made impressive gains in education. The average young Indian has a high school education—much better than their mother’s generation that ... Cite

A Range of Informality Across Cities and Slums: Understanding Precarity in Patna’s Slums Before and During the COVID-19 Pandemic

Journal Article Journal of South Asian Development · August 1, 2023 This article proposes a framework for understanding why slum residents are particularly vulnerable to economic downturns. We centre evidence from Bihar’s capital city, Patna, to examine how downturns are experienced more severely in some cities and slums t ... Full text Cite

Why Do Poorer Kids Not Move Ahead Faster? Considering the Poverty of Opportunity in Bihar and Delhi

Journal Article Economic and Political Weekly · May 13, 2023 Can a poorer individual who has a particular talent realistically hope to move up in life because they have this particular talent? This proposition is put to the test by interviewing more than 800 young individuals in rural and urban Bihar and Delhi. Find ... Cite

Tracing the Geographies of Inequality in India Beneath the Urban–Rural Divide

Journal Article Economic and Political Weekly · March 4, 2023 Spatial, that is, geographic inequalities are growing in India and other countries. Some countries are better provided with services, infrastructure, and earning opportunities. States matter and the urban–rural difference is salient to these distinctions. ... Cite

The impact of Covid-19 on household poverty: examining impacts and resilience in a 40-year timeframe in rural Rajasthan (India)

Journal Article Oxford Development Studies · January 1, 2023 To what extent has chronic poverty increased during the pandemic? In July and August 2021, we revisited seven villages of southern Rajasthan (India), where we had studied household poverty dynamics in 2002. We find that in the two decades before the pandem ... Full text Cite

A threat to life and livelihoods: examining the effects of the first wave of COVID-19 on health and wellbeing in Bengaluru and Patna slums

Journal Article Environment and Urbanization · April 1, 2022 Taking advantage of our existing dataset of 6,721 slum households in two Indian cities, we undertook six rounds of follow-up phone interviews on the impact of COVID-19 between July and November 2020 with three key informants in each of 40 diverse slums. Th ... Full text Cite

Negotiating Informality– Ambiguity, Intermediation, and a Patchwork of Outcomes in Slums of Bengaluru

Journal Article Journal of Development Studies · November 1, 2020 In developing countries, procedural ambiguity due to bureaucratic overlap and political discretion gives rise to divergence between law and practice. In this context of pervasive informality, it is important to consider how local negotiations produce dispa ... Full text Cite

The poorest after the pandemic

Journal Article Current History · November 1, 2020 Full text Cite

Precarious gains: Social mobility and volatility in urban slums

Journal Article World Development · August 1, 2020 Nearly one sixth of the global population lives in urban “slums” – areas characterized by inadequate infrastructure and tenure security. This figure continues to grow as developing countries rapidly urbanize. Yet, the implications of these trends for urban ... Full text Cite

Local Order, Policing, and Bribes

Journal Article World Politics · January 1, 2020 Day-to-day policing represents a fundamental interface between citizens and states. Yet even in the most capable states, local policing varies enormously from one community to the next. The authors seek to understand this variation and in doing so make thr ... Full text Cite

Food subsidy in cash or kind? The wrong debate

Journal Article Economic and Political Weekly · August 10, 2019 The need for the public distribution system varies widely across states and districts. In some districts, the poor draw more than 80% of their grain from the PDS, but in other districts this share is less than 10%. A wide diversity of relationships with th ... Cite

Beyond Poverty Escapes - Social Mobility in Developing Countries: A Review Article

Journal Article World Bank Research Observer · August 1, 2019 While social mobility in advanced economies has received extensive scholarly attention, crucial knowledge gaps remain about the patterns and determinants of income, educational, and occupational mobility in developing countries. Focusing on intergeneration ... Full text Cite

Combining satellite and survey data to study Indian slums: evidence on the range of conditions and implications for urban policy

Journal Article Environment and Urbanization · April 1, 2019 Projections suggest that most of the global growth in population in the next few decades will be in urban centres in Asia and Africa. Most of these additional urban residents will be concentrated in slums. However, government documentation of slums is inco ... Full text Cite

Obstacles to social mobility in India—and the way forward

Journal Article Current History · April 1, 2019 Open Access Cite

The contribution of pediatric surgery to poverty trajectories in Somaliland.

Journal Article PLoS One · 2019 BACKGROUND: The provision of health care in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) is recognized as a significant contributor to economic growth and also impacts individual families at a microeconomic level. The primary goal of our study was to exa ... Full text Link to item Cite

Globalised Growth in Largely Agrarian Contexts: The Urban–Rural Divide

Journal Article ESID Working Paper · September 10, 2018 Cite

Machine learning approaches for slum detection using very high resolution satellite images

Conference IEEE International Conference on Data Mining Workshops, ICDMW · July 2, 2018 Detecting informal settlements has become an important area of research in the past decade, owing to the availability of high resolution satellite imagery. Traditional per-pixel based classification methods provide high degree of accuracy in distinguishing ... Full text Cite

Promoting Social Mobility in India: Modes of Action and Types of Support Organizations

Journal Article Journal of South Asian Development · December 1, 2017 Equality of opportunity is an important ideal to uphold in a just society. Beyond its long-standing commitment to affirmative action, relatively little has been done in India to realize this ideal. Compared to other countries, Indian children raised in pov ... Full text Cite

Promoting Social Mobility in India

Journal Article · December 2017 Equality of opportunity is an important ideal to uphold in a just society. Beyond its long-standing commitment to affirmative action, relatively little has been done in India to realize this ideal. Compared to other countries, Indian children raised in pov ... Cite

Rags to riches? Intergenerational occupational mobility in India

Journal Article Economic and Political Weekly · November 4, 2017 The paper examines intergenerational occupational mobility in India among males. This analysis differs from previous work in three important respects. First, a finer-grained categorisation that takes into account differences in skill levels across occupati ... Cite

Should Rich Nations Help the Poor?

Journal Article Journal of Human Development and Capabilities · October 2, 2017 Full text Cite

The Broken Ladder: The Paradox and the Potential of India’s One Billion

Book · April 17, 2017 In contrast to other investigations, which have taken a top-down view of the developments in the country, Krishna presents a ground-up perspective, delving into the lives of ordinary individuals. Through decades-long research conducted on the ground, livin ... Cite

Demonetization in India: One more rock in the river

Journal Article Current History · April 1, 2017 Cite

Color edge detection for noisy images by nonlinear prefiltering and block-by-block rotations

Conference 2015 International Conference on Communication and Signal Processing, ICCSP 2015 · November 9, 2015 This paper addresses a method to obtain color edge detection for images corrupted with Gaussian noise and impulse noise, to correctly reproduce distinct, continuous edges based on nonlinear prefiltering followed by block-by-block rotations to locate the ed ... Full text Cite

The urban-rural gap and the dilemma of governance

Journal Article Current History · November 1, 2015 Cite

Layers in globalising society and the new middle class in India: Trends, distribution and prospects

Journal Article Economic and Political Weekly · January 31, 2015 The means of personal transportation to which one has access constitute an important part of one's relationship with globalisation, limiting or enhancing the scope of activity and area of influence. We define economic classes in relation to different trans ... Cite

Slum types and adaptation strategies: identifying policy-relevant differences in Bangalore

Journal Article Environment and Urbanization · October 14, 2014 An empirical analysis of the lived experiences of more than 2,000 households in different Bangalore slums shows how migration patterns, living conditions, livelihood strategies and prospects for the future vary widely across distinct types of slums that we ... Full text Cite

The Gradient of Governance: Distance and Disengagement in Indian Villages

Journal Article Journal of Development Studies · January 1, 2014 National governance scores must be seen in light of large within-country variance. Not only being a rural village, but being located at a substantial distance from cities, has great importance for good governance. Analysis of household data from different ... Full text Cite

Making it in india examining social mobility in three walks of life

Journal Article Economic and Political Weekly · December 7, 2013 Inequality is rising in India alongside rapid economic growth, reinforcing the need to investigate social mobility. Are children from less well-off sections also able to rise to higher paying positions, or are these positions going mainly to established el ... Cite

Seasonal livelihoods

Journal Article · January 1, 2013 Full text Cite

PART 2: Seasonal livelihoods

Chapter · January 1, 2013 Cite

Distance and Diseases: Spatial Health Disparities in Rural India.

Journal Article Millennial Asia (Inaugural Sage Edition) · January 2013 Cite

The mixed news on poverty

Journal Article Current History · January 1, 2013 Cite

Characteristics and Patterns of Intergenerational Poverty Traps and Escapes in Rural North India

Journal Article Development Policy Review · September 1, 2012 The poverty status of all 4,198 households resident in 18 villages of Rajasthan, India, was examined at four points of time between 1977 and 2010 using a retrospective methodology known as Stages of Progress. Households that were consistently poor at all f ... Full text Cite

The Spatial Dimension of Inter-Generational Education Achievement in Rural India

Journal Article Indian Journal of Human Development · July 1, 2012 Full text Cite

Active Social Capital Tracing the Roots of Development and Democracy

Book · June 19, 2012 How can development, peace and democracy become more fruitful for the ordinary citizen? This book shows how social capital is a crucial dimension of any solution to these problems. ... Cite

How Much Can Asset Transfers Help the Poorest? Evaluating the Results of BRAC's Ultra-Poor Programme (2002-2008)

Journal Article Journal of Development Studies · February 1, 2012 The impacts of an innovative programme in rural Bangladesh, which has assisted extremely poor households, literally the poorest of the poor, were assessed over a six-year period (2002-2008). The provision of a substantial dose of assets has helped produce ... Full text Cite

Stuck in Place: Investigating Social Mobility in 14 Bangalore Slums

Journal Article Journal of Development Studies · 2012 Cite

Lineal spread and radial dissipation: Experiencing growth in rural India, 1993-2005

Journal Article Economic and Political Weekly · September 17, 2011 The distribution of benefits from economic growth since the early 1990s has followed an identifiable spatial pattern. People in the largest cities have achieved the greatest gains, followed by people in small towns and villages close to towns. Further away ... Cite

The Irrelevance of National Strategies? Rural Poverty Dynamics in States and Regions of India, 1993-2005

Journal Article World Development · April 1, 2011 Examining panel data for more than 13,000 rural Indian households over the 12-year period 1993-94 to 2004-05 shows that two parallel and opposite flows regularly reconfigure the national stock of poverty. Some formerly poor people have escaped poverty; con ... Full text Cite

Gaining access to public services and the democratic state in India: Institutions in the middle

Journal Article Studies in Comparative International Development · March 1, 2011 How and to what extent do different citizens experience democratic governance on a day-to-day basis? What agencies do they utilize in order to have their voices heard and grievances addressed? How do they gain access to government agencies responsible for ... Full text Cite

Continuity and change: The Indian administrative service 30 years ago and today

Journal Article Commonwealth and Comparative Politics · November 1, 2010 Continuity trumps change: in essential respects the Indian Administrative Service (IAS) remains as it was 30 years ago. Thirty years hence the IAS should continue much as it is, albeit with gradually waning influence. Pressures from below and above will in ... Full text Cite

Understanding poverty dynamics in Kenya

Journal Article Journal of International Development · October 1, 2010 Combining qualitative-quantitative approaches, we examined the reasons behind household movements into and out of poverty across Kenya, and how they differ by livelihood zones. Among the 4773 households studied, 42 per cent were poor 15 years ago and 50 pe ... Full text Cite

One Illness Away: Why People Become Poor and How They Escape Poverty

Book · August 26, 2010 This book addresses how equal opportunity can be promoted and how slum-born millionaires can arisein reality. Speaking to Barack Obama's message for more effective health care, One Illness Away feeds directly into current public debates. ... Cite

Who became poor, who escaped poverty, and why? Developing and using a retrospective methodology in five countries

Journal Article Journal of Policy Analysis and Management · March 1, 2010 The Stages-of-Progress methodology helps identify context-specific reasons associated with households' movements into or out of poverty. Developed in 2002, it was used over the next seven years for examining the experiences of 35,567 households in 398 dive ... Full text Cite

Why don't 'the Poor' make common cause? the importance of subgroups

Journal Article Journal of Development Studies · July 1, 2009 Analyses that regard 'the poor' as a sociological category need to take account of recent studies quantifying the extent of flux within these ranks. Frequent movements into and out of poverty regularly refresh the pool of the poor. Large numbers of poor pe ... Full text Cite

Subjective Assessments, Participatory Methods, and Poverty Dynamics

Chapter · May 1, 2009 This chapter discusses the stages of progress method for the assessment of poverty. It tracks households in five countries: four developing countries and the United States. The methodology has seven steps: (i) get together representative community group; ( ... Full text Cite

Experiments on strategic choices and markets

Journal Article Marketing Letters · December 1, 2008 Much of experimental research in marketing has focused on individual choices. Yet in many contexts, the outcomes of one's choices depend on the choices of others. Furthermore, the results obtained in individual decision making context may not be applicable ... Full text Cite

Poverty, Participation, and Democracy A Global Perspective

Book · July 21, 2008 Evidence from 24 diverse countries of Asia, Africa and Latin America examined in this volume shows how poor people do not value democracy any less than their richer counterparts. ... Cite

Hierarchical integration: The dollar economy and the rupee economy

Journal Article Development and Change · March 1, 2008 While contemporary globalization makes the world more interconnected, it also reworks and builds on existing cleavages and uneven development. This is an under-researched dimension of the emerging twenty-first century international division of labour. The ... Full text Cite

Conclusion: Implications for policy and research

Chapter · January 1, 2008 Since the mid-twentieth century academic and intellectual understandings of the role of mass publics in democracy has been Schumpeterian in its conclusion that extensive political participation by the poor or the working classes would be antithetical to de ... Full text Cite

Poverty, participation, and democracy

Book · January 1, 2008 For too long a conventional wisdom has held sway, suggesting that poor people in poor countries are not supportive of democracy and that democracies will be sustained only after a certain average level of wealth has been achieved. Evidence from 24 diverse ... Full text Cite

Introduction: Poor people and democracy

Chapter · January 1, 2008 Social scientists have steadily believed that democracies will more likely exist in richer rather than poorer countries. Analyses of cross-country data have consistently shown democracy to be more prevalent and more stable in countries that have higher-tha ... Full text Cite

Do poor people care less for democracy? Testing individual-level assumptions with individual-level data from India

Chapter · January 1, 2008 The positive effect of higher wealth on democracy was asserted by Lipset (1960: 31): “democracy is related to the state of economic development…the more well-to-do a nation, the greater the chances it will sustain democracy.” Later studies have overwhelmin ... Full text Cite

The balance of all things: Explaining household poverty dynamics in 50 villages of Gujarat, India

Journal Article International Journal of Multiple Research Approaches · January 1, 2008 Explanations for poverty have often tended to focus on momentous, especially calamitous, events. In this analysis we show how households’ longer-term economic fortunes are more significantly influenced by a succession of quotidian, recurring, and comparati ... Full text Cite

How does social capital grow? A seven-year study of villages in India

Journal Article Journal of Politics · November 1, 2007 Social capital has been shown to be important for strengthening democracy and promoting development, but relatively little is known about how social capital grows, especially over the short to medium term. To help identify the nature and sources of growth ... Full text Cite

For Reducing Poverty Faster: Target Reasons Before People

Journal Article World Development · November 1, 2007 Poverty is inherently dynamic: large numbers of people are escaping from poverty at any given time, but large numbers are also falling into poverty simultaneously. Achieving faster poverty reduction requires speeding up the pace of escapes while concurrent ... Full text Cite

Subjective Assessments, Participatory Methods and Poverty Dynamics: The Stages-of-Progress Method

Journal Article Chronic Poverty Research Centre Working Paper · October 1, 2007 Cite

Poverty dynamics and the role of livestock in the Peruvian Andes

Journal Article Agricultural Systems · May 1, 2007 Livestock play an important role for poor rural households in regions such as the Peruvian Andes. Research methods leading to a better understanding of the role of livestock in household poverty dynamics, and what better targeted policies and interventions ... Full text Cite

Politics in the middle: Mediating relationships between the citizens and the state in rural North India

Chapter · January 1, 2007 Caste and patron–client links have been regarded most often as the building blocks of political organization in India, especially in its rural parts (Migdal 1988; Weiner 1989), and caste associations have been thought to be the pre-eminent mode of interest ... Full text Cite

Poverty and health: Defeating poverty by going to the roots

Journal Article Development · January 1, 2007 Poverty is dynamic in nature: even as some people move out of poverty, other people simultaneously fall into poverty. The poverty pool is being simultaneously both depleted and refilled. Anirudh Krishna argues that efforts for poverty reduction tend to foc ... Full text Cite

The Stages-of-Progress Methodology and Results from Five Countries

Conference REDUCING GLOBAL POVERTY: THE CASE FOR ASSET ACCUMULATION · January 1, 2007 Link to item Cite

Fixing the hole in the bucket: Household poverty dynamics in the Peruvian Andes

Journal Article Development and Change · September 1, 2006 Achieving the Millennium Development Goal of halving poverty will require simultaneous action on two separate fronts: helping poor people escape from poverty, and stemming the flow of people into poverty. This article examines forty Peruvian communities, a ... Full text Cite

Reversal of fortune

Journal Article Foreign Policy · May 1, 2006 Cite

Pathways out of and into poverty in 36 villages of Andhra Pradesh, India

Journal Article World Development · February 1, 2006 Fourteen percent of households in 36 villages of three districts in Andhra Pradesh, India, escaped from poverty over the past 25 years, but another 12% of these 5 536 households fell into poverty during the same time. Escaping poverty and falling into pove ... Full text Cite

Escaping poverty and becoming poor in 36 villages of Central and Western Uganda

Journal Article Journal of Development Studies · February 1, 2006 Twenty-four per cent of households in 36 village communities of Central and Western Uganda have escaped from poverty over the past 25 years, but another 15 per cent have simultaneously fallen into poverty. A roughly equal number of households escaped from ... Full text Cite

Why growth is not enough: Household poverty dynamics in northeast Gujarat, India

Journal Article Journal of Development Studies · October 1, 2005 Despite high growth rates in Gujarat, exceeding 9 per cent per year over the decade of the 1990s, poverty in 36 villages located in the northeastern part of this state has changed hardly at all. In these villages, 9.5 per cent of households escaped from po ... Full text Cite

Understanding, measuring and utilizing social capital: Clarifying concepts and presenting a field application from India

Journal Article Agricultural Systems · December 1, 2004 Social capital has been defined as a resource, a propensity for mutually beneficial collective action, that communities possess to different extents. Communities with high levels of social capital are able to act together collectively for achieving diverse ... Full text Cite

Civil society and public sector institutions: More than a zero-sum relationship

Journal Article Public Administration and Development · October 1, 2004 Measuring civil society strength has become entangled in competing definitions of civil society (CS). A more productive approach begins by considering CS from the perspective not of what it is but from what it does. Civil society functions - articulating c ... Full text Cite

Escaping Poverty and Becoming Poor in 20 Kenyan Villages

Journal Article Journal of Human Development · July 1, 2004 Three hundred and sixteen households in 20 western Kenyan villages — 19% of all households in these villages — managed successfully to escape from poverty in the past 25 years. However, another 325 households (i.e. 19% of all households of these villages) ... Full text Cite

Falling Into Poverty in Andhra Pradesh Villages: Why Poverty Avoidance Policies are Needed

Journal Article Economic and Political Weekly, Bombay · 2004 Cite

Escaping poverty and becoming poor: Who gains, who loses, and why?

Journal Article World Development · January 1, 2004 Different households have followed very different economic trajectories, this study of 35 north Indian villages shows. Members of 11.1% of 6,376 households in these villages have overcome poverty in the last 25 years, while members of another 7.9% have fal ... Full text Cite

Partnerships between local governments and community-based organisations: Exploring the scope for synergy

Journal Article Public Administration and Development · October 1, 2003 The utility of both local governments and community-based organisations can be considerably enhanced when these agencies work in partnership with one another. Different roles will be played by local governments and community organisations in different type ... Full text Cite

Falling Into Poverty: The Other Side of Poverty Reduction"

Journal Article Economic and Political Weekly · February 2003 Cite

What is happening to caste? a view from some North Indian villages

Journal Article Journal of Asian Studies · January 1, 2003 Full text Cite

Enhancing political participation in democracies: What is the role of social capital?

Journal Article Comparative Political Studies · May 1, 2002 What factors account for a more active and politically engaged citizenry? Macro-national institutions, micro-level influences (such as individuals' wealth and education), and meso-level factors, particularly social capital, have been stressed variously in ... Full text Cite

Moving from the stock of social capital to the flow of benefits: The role of agency

Journal Article World Development · January 1, 2001 Comparing results for 60 villages in Rajasthan, India, it is seen that having a high level of social capital does not always help to achieve high development performance. Stocks of social capital need to be drawn upon actively, and capable agency is necess ... Full text Cite

Measuring Social Capital

Journal Article Social Capital Initiative Working Paper Series · 2000 Cite

Reasons For Success : Learning From Instructive Experiences In Rural Development

Book · 1998 More than the wealth of detail and nuggets of insights which mark these volumes, what is moving is their tone and temper. ... Cite

Reasons for Hope Instructive Experiences in Rural Development

Book · 1997 Read individually for specific guidance, or collectively for cumulative advice on how to promote the most desirable forms of rural development, these stories offer a timely and crucial message concerning the plight of the rural poor. ... Cite

Dynamic influences on individual choice behavior

Journal Article Marketing Letters · January 1, 1997 Research examining the process of individual decision making over time is briefly reviewed. We focus on two major areas of work in choice dynamics: research that has examined how current choices are influenced by the history of previous choices, and newer ... Full text Cite

Impact of bundle type, price framing and familiarity on purchase intention for the bundle

Journal Article Journal of Business Research · January 1, 1995 Bundling of products is very prevalent in the marketplace. For example, travel packages include airfare, lodging, and a rental car. Considerable economic research has focused on the change in profits and consumer surplus that ensues if bundles are offered. ... Full text Open Access Cite