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Brigit Maria Carter

Clinical Professor Emerita in the School of Nursing
School of Nursing
307 Trent Drive, DUMC Box 3322, Room 2116, Durham, NC 27710
307 Trent Drive, DUMC Box 3322, Room 2116, Durham, NC 27710

Selected Publications


Advancing Health Equity Through Artificial Intelligence: An Educational Framework for Preparing Nurses in Clinical Practice and Research.

Journal Article Creative nursing · May 2024 The integration of artificial intelligence (AI) into health care offers the potential to enhance patient care, improve diagnostic precision, and broaden access to health-care services. Nurses, positioned at the forefront of patient care, play a pivotal rol ... Full text Cite

Increasing Diversity in the Advanced Practice Nursing Workforce Through Partnerships With Historically Black Colleges.

Journal Article Nurse educator · March 2024 BackgroundHealth inequities have enhanced efforts to diversify the nursing workforce. Despite recruitment strategies, the percentage of Black nurse practitioners (NPs) lags in comparison with the populous.ProblemBarriers to improving work ... Full text Cite

Color Does Matter: Nursing Assessment of Varying Skin Tones/Pigmentation.

Journal Article Advances in neonatal care : official journal of the National Association of Neonatal Nurses · December 2023 BackgroundThe observation of color is an integral part of the nursing assessment. However, the current understanding of individual skin qualities and pigmentation has not yet been integrated thoroughly into foundational assessment courses, clinica ... Full text Cite

Overcoming Marginalization by Creating a Sense of Belonging.

Journal Article Creative nursing · November 2023 Marginalization encompasses structural, interpersonal, and intergroup dynamics that perpetuate inequality and exclusion. This manuscript advocates that the solution to marginalization lies in fostering a sense of belonging. Belonging is a fundamental human ... Full text Cite

Implicit Racial Bias Attitudes and Mitigation in Neonatal Nurse Practitioners: A Quality Improvement Project.

Journal Article Neonatal network : NN · July 2023 Purposeto assess the impact of education using the implicit bias recognition and management (IBRM) teaching approach.Designlongitudinal quasi-experimental design. Surveys at baseline, immediate postimplementation, and 4-week postimplement ... Full text Cite

Empowered Approaches to Critical/Challenging Encounters: Promoting PEACE in a School of Nursing

Journal Article Creative Nursing · February 1, 2023 The Promoting Empowered Approaches for Critical/Challenging Encounters (PEACE) program, developed at Duke University School of Nursing, is designed to navigate communication when there has been an exchange between community members, either with actions, wo ... Full text Cite

Creating a racial justice plan in a school of nursing: A journey of discovery and learning.

Journal Article Journal of professional nursing : official journal of the American Association of Colleges of Nursing · July 2022 While there are many individuals and instances which illustrate the injustices experienced by people of color at the hands of police in the United States, the video which documented the murder of George Floyd by a law enforcement officer graphically illust ... Full text Cite

NICU Fathers: Improving the Quality of Paternal Support in the NICU.

Journal Article Advances in neonatal care : official journal of the National Association of Neonatal Nurses · October 2021 BackgroundParental support in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) is critical; yet, the nursing staff may struggle to provide optimal support to NICU fathers. Generally, fathers are not viewed as equally competent caregivers when compared with ... Full text Cite

40% Glucose Gel for the Treatment of Asymptomatic Neonatal Hypoglycemia.

Journal Article Advances in neonatal care : official journal of the National Association of Neonatal Nurses · October 2021 BackgroundThe Mother Infant Care Center at Fort Belvoir Community Hospital (FBCH) recently revised its asymptotic neonatal hypoglycemia (ANH) protocol and adopted 40% glucose gel into its treatment pathway. The previous protocol used infant formul ... Full text Cite

Neonatal Thermoregulation: A Golden Hour Protocol Update.

Journal Article Advances in neonatal care : official journal of the National Association of Neonatal Nurses · August 2021 BackgroundPremature infants are poor regulators of body temperature and are subjected to environmental factors that can lead to rapid heat loss, leaving them vulnerable to an increased risk of morbidity and mortality from hypothermia. Thermoregula ... Full text Cite

Launching the Reduction of Peripartum Racial/Ethnic Disparities Bundle: A Quality Improvement Project.

Journal Article Journal of midwifery & women's health · July 2021 IntroductionHealth care organizations have a responsibility to reduce racial and ethnic perinatal health disparities. In the United States, Black women experience the worst perinatal outcomes. The process for successfully addressing this problem i ... Full text Cite

Oral Health Program for VA Outpatient Clinics

Journal Article Journal for Nurse Practitioners · May 1, 2021 One in 4 adults in the United States have untreated oral disorders, although these are easily preventable. The purpose of this quality improvement project was to integrate the Oral Health Assessment Tool (OHAT) into the care provided at Veteran Affairs out ... Full text Cite

Rewriting the Microaggression Narrative: Enhancing Nursing Students' Ability to Respond.

Journal Article Nurse educator · March 2021 BackgroundIt is recognized that expanding the number of racial/ethnic minority nurses is key to addressing the challenges of health disparities. However, some schools of nursing have not typically experienced diversity.ProblemDiverse nurs ... Full text Cite

Revolutionizing the Nursing Curriculum.

Journal Article Creative nursing · February 2021 There have long been challenges associated with integrating knowledge about diversity, disparities, and determinants into nursing curricula. Villarruel, Bigelow, and Alvarez describe these concepts as the three Ds about issues of disconnects and discrimina ... Full text Cite

Entrenched White Supremacy in Nursing Education Administrative Structures.

Journal Article Creative nursing · February 2021 The National League for Nursing, the American Nurses Association, and the American Association of Colleges of Nursing each have published directives or position statements that support initiatives that would diversify faculty in nursing education; some ini ... Full text Cite

Creating a culture that values diversity and inclusion: An action-oriented framework for schools of nursing.

Journal Article Nursing forum · November 2020 An organizational culture that values diversity and inclusion is essential for the achievement of high-quality nursing education, yet little literature exists to guide schools of nursing (SON) in accomplishing this goal. All SONs, regardless of size, need ... Full text Cite

Looking backwards to move forward: Using a social mission lens in nursing education.

Journal Article Journal of professional nursing : official journal of the American Association of Colleges of Nursing · September 2020 The ideals of health equity continue to be constrained by the conditions in which people live, learn and work. But to what extents are nursing schools strengthening the preparedness of nurses to extend their reach and help individuals and communities achie ... Full text Cite

Achieving diversity, inclusion and equity in the nursing workforce.

Journal Article Revista latino-americana de enfermagem · February 2020 Full text Cite

Golden Hour Protocol for Preterm Infants: A Quality Improvement Project.

Journal Article Advances in neonatal care : official journal of the National Association of Neonatal Nurses · December 2018 BackgroundPreterm infants are a vulnerable patient population, especially during the first hours of life. Hypothermia, hypoglycemia, and early-onset sepsis are common problems related to prematurity. Implementation of a Golden Hour protocol has be ... Full text Cite

Substance Use Education in Schools of Nursing: A Systematic Review of the Literature.

Journal Article Nurse educator · May 2018 The authors systematically reviewed the nursing literature for articles describing substance use disorders (SUDs) education in schools of nursing. Five literature databases were searched, producing 3107 retrieved articles, of which 12 were included in this ... Full text Cite

Advancing Health Equity Through Artificial Intelligence: An Educational Framework for Preparing Nurses in Clinical Practice and Research.

Journal Article Creative nursing · May 2024 The integration of artificial intelligence (AI) into health care offers the potential to enhance patient care, improve diagnostic precision, and broaden access to health-care services. Nurses, positioned at the forefront of patient care, play a pivotal rol ... Full text Cite

Increasing Diversity in the Advanced Practice Nursing Workforce Through Partnerships With Historically Black Colleges.

Journal Article Nurse educator · March 2024 BackgroundHealth inequities have enhanced efforts to diversify the nursing workforce. Despite recruitment strategies, the percentage of Black nurse practitioners (NPs) lags in comparison with the populous.ProblemBarriers to improving work ... Full text Cite

Color Does Matter: Nursing Assessment of Varying Skin Tones/Pigmentation.

Journal Article Advances in neonatal care : official journal of the National Association of Neonatal Nurses · December 2023 BackgroundThe observation of color is an integral part of the nursing assessment. However, the current understanding of individual skin qualities and pigmentation has not yet been integrated thoroughly into foundational assessment courses, clinica ... Full text Cite

Overcoming Marginalization by Creating a Sense of Belonging.

Journal Article Creative nursing · November 2023 Marginalization encompasses structural, interpersonal, and intergroup dynamics that perpetuate inequality and exclusion. This manuscript advocates that the solution to marginalization lies in fostering a sense of belonging. Belonging is a fundamental human ... Full text Cite

Implicit Racial Bias Attitudes and Mitigation in Neonatal Nurse Practitioners: A Quality Improvement Project.

Journal Article Neonatal network : NN · July 2023 Purposeto assess the impact of education using the implicit bias recognition and management (IBRM) teaching approach.Designlongitudinal quasi-experimental design. Surveys at baseline, immediate postimplementation, and 4-week postimplement ... Full text Cite

Empowered Approaches to Critical/Challenging Encounters: Promoting PEACE in a School of Nursing

Journal Article Creative Nursing · February 1, 2023 The Promoting Empowered Approaches for Critical/Challenging Encounters (PEACE) program, developed at Duke University School of Nursing, is designed to navigate communication when there has been an exchange between community members, either with actions, wo ... Full text Cite

Creating a racial justice plan in a school of nursing: A journey of discovery and learning.

Journal Article Journal of professional nursing : official journal of the American Association of Colleges of Nursing · July 2022 While there are many individuals and instances which illustrate the injustices experienced by people of color at the hands of police in the United States, the video which documented the murder of George Floyd by a law enforcement officer graphically illust ... Full text Cite

NICU Fathers: Improving the Quality of Paternal Support in the NICU.

Journal Article Advances in neonatal care : official journal of the National Association of Neonatal Nurses · October 2021 BackgroundParental support in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) is critical; yet, the nursing staff may struggle to provide optimal support to NICU fathers. Generally, fathers are not viewed as equally competent caregivers when compared with ... Full text Cite

40% Glucose Gel for the Treatment of Asymptomatic Neonatal Hypoglycemia.

Journal Article Advances in neonatal care : official journal of the National Association of Neonatal Nurses · October 2021 BackgroundThe Mother Infant Care Center at Fort Belvoir Community Hospital (FBCH) recently revised its asymptotic neonatal hypoglycemia (ANH) protocol and adopted 40% glucose gel into its treatment pathway. The previous protocol used infant formul ... Full text Cite

Neonatal Thermoregulation: A Golden Hour Protocol Update.

Journal Article Advances in neonatal care : official journal of the National Association of Neonatal Nurses · August 2021 BackgroundPremature infants are poor regulators of body temperature and are subjected to environmental factors that can lead to rapid heat loss, leaving them vulnerable to an increased risk of morbidity and mortality from hypothermia. Thermoregula ... Full text Cite

Launching the Reduction of Peripartum Racial/Ethnic Disparities Bundle: A Quality Improvement Project.

Journal Article Journal of midwifery & women's health · July 2021 IntroductionHealth care organizations have a responsibility to reduce racial and ethnic perinatal health disparities. In the United States, Black women experience the worst perinatal outcomes. The process for successfully addressing this problem i ... Full text Cite

Oral Health Program for VA Outpatient Clinics

Journal Article Journal for Nurse Practitioners · May 1, 2021 One in 4 adults in the United States have untreated oral disorders, although these are easily preventable. The purpose of this quality improvement project was to integrate the Oral Health Assessment Tool (OHAT) into the care provided at Veteran Affairs out ... Full text Cite

Rewriting the Microaggression Narrative: Enhancing Nursing Students' Ability to Respond.

Journal Article Nurse educator · March 2021 BackgroundIt is recognized that expanding the number of racial/ethnic minority nurses is key to addressing the challenges of health disparities. However, some schools of nursing have not typically experienced diversity.ProblemDiverse nurs ... Full text Cite

Revolutionizing the Nursing Curriculum.

Journal Article Creative nursing · February 2021 There have long been challenges associated with integrating knowledge about diversity, disparities, and determinants into nursing curricula. Villarruel, Bigelow, and Alvarez describe these concepts as the three Ds about issues of disconnects and discrimina ... Full text Cite

Entrenched White Supremacy in Nursing Education Administrative Structures.

Journal Article Creative nursing · February 2021 The National League for Nursing, the American Nurses Association, and the American Association of Colleges of Nursing each have published directives or position statements that support initiatives that would diversify faculty in nursing education; some ini ... Full text Cite

Creating a culture that values diversity and inclusion: An action-oriented framework for schools of nursing.

Journal Article Nursing forum · November 2020 An organizational culture that values diversity and inclusion is essential for the achievement of high-quality nursing education, yet little literature exists to guide schools of nursing (SON) in accomplishing this goal. All SONs, regardless of size, need ... Full text Cite

Looking backwards to move forward: Using a social mission lens in nursing education.

Journal Article Journal of professional nursing : official journal of the American Association of Colleges of Nursing · September 2020 The ideals of health equity continue to be constrained by the conditions in which people live, learn and work. But to what extents are nursing schools strengthening the preparedness of nurses to extend their reach and help individuals and communities achie ... Full text Cite

Achieving diversity, inclusion and equity in the nursing workforce.

Journal Article Revista latino-americana de enfermagem · February 2020 Full text Cite

Golden Hour Protocol for Preterm Infants: A Quality Improvement Project.

Journal Article Advances in neonatal care : official journal of the National Association of Neonatal Nurses · December 2018 BackgroundPreterm infants are a vulnerable patient population, especially during the first hours of life. Hypothermia, hypoglycemia, and early-onset sepsis are common problems related to prematurity. Implementation of a Golden Hour protocol has be ... Full text Cite

Substance Use Education in Schools of Nursing: A Systematic Review of the Literature.

Journal Article Nurse educator · May 2018 The authors systematically reviewed the nursing literature for articles describing substance use disorders (SUDs) education in schools of nursing. Five literature databases were searched, producing 3107 retrieved articles, of which 12 were included in this ... Full text Cite

Student-Developed Simulations: Enhancing Cultural Awareness and Understanding Social Determinants of Health.

Journal Article The Journal of nursing education · April 2017 BackgroundNational and global initiatives to address the social determinants of health (SDH) are on the rise. On a parallel trajectory, increased cultural awareness is emerging as an integral strategy to improve the understanding of these social c ... Full text Cite

Improving the Process of Enteral Nutrition Preparation With Milk Technicians: Perceptions of Cost, Time, and Quality.

Journal Article Advances in neonatal care : official journal of the National Association of Neonatal Nurses · April 2016 BackgroundNeonatal intensive care nurses have historically been responsible for preparing enteral feedings--a costly and time-consuming process that may require leaving the bedside. To address these concerns, the Milk Technician Program was implem ... Full text Cite

Evaluation of a Sickle Cell Disease Educational Website for Emergency Providers.

Journal Article Advanced emergency nursing journal · April 2016 Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a complex multisystem debilitating disease. Despite its complexity, health care providers who are not SCD experts receive little formal education on SCD. An open-access, educational website, "Emergency Department Sickle Cell Di ... Full text Cite

Strategies to Address Individual Level Social Determinants of Health Designed to Cultivate the Next Generation of Minority Nurse Leaders Committed to Health Equity.

Journal Article Creative nursing · February 2016 In response to the need for increased racial and ethnic diversity in the nursing profession, the Duke University School of Nursing (DUSON) established the Academy for Academic and Social Enrichment for Leadership Development in Health Equity (Health Equity ... Full text Cite

A 6th Vital Sign--Potential Use of Nasogastric Tube for Intra-abdominal Pressure Monitoring Method to Detect Feeding Intolerance in Very Low Birth-Weight Preterm Infants (<1500 g).

Journal Article Advances in neonatal care : official journal of the National Association of Neonatal Nurses · June 2015 BackgroundWhile various feeding strategies designed to optimize growth have been investigated and used in the clinical setting, the problem of not being able to recognize the warning signs of feeding intolerance early enough to prevent serious gas ... Full text Cite

Beginning with the end in mind: cultivating minority nurse leaders.

Journal Article Journal of professional nursing : official journal of the American Association of Colleges of Nursing · March 2015 In response to the need for increased racial and ethnic diversity in the nursing profession, the Duke University School of Nursing (DUSON) established the Making a Difference in Nursing II (MADIN II) Program. The aim of the MADIN II Program is to improve t ... Full text Cite

Nursing assessment of guaiac-positive and occult blood in preterm infant stools.

Journal Article Neonatal network : NN · March 2014 Guaiac testing the stool of very low birth weight (VLBW; <1,500 g) preterm infants has been a standard of care for many neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) and considered a diagnostic tool that could potentially provide early warning of gastrointestinal ... Full text Cite

The relationship between black race, maternal infection and NEC in the preterm infant

Journal Article Newborn and Infant Nursing Reviews · December 1, 2013 Higher rates of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in black preterm infants have been attributed to the higher rates of preterm delivery in this population. The focus however has been on preterm infant risk factors with minimal investigation into the contribu ... Full text Cite

Feeding Intolerance in Preterm Infants and Standard of Care Guidelines for Nursing Assessments

Journal Article Newborn and Infant Nursing Reviews · December 1, 2012 Multiple methods have been evaluated to improve the nutritional management of preterm infants; however, nursing assessment for early identification of feeding intolerance symptoms has not yet been addressed. It is crucial for nurses to understand potential ... Full text Cite

Relationship of neonatal treatments with the development of necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm infants.

Journal Article Nurs Res · 2012 BACKGROUND: Although many therapeutic interventions are necessary for the survival of the preterm infant, understanding the potential effects of these treatments is important to decrease the rate of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm infants. OBJEC ... Full text Link to item Cite

Recruiting and retaining a diverse workforce in nursing: from evidence to best practices to policy.

Journal Article Policy, politics & nursing practice · November 2010 Health policy makers, providers, clinicians, and social scientists are among those who have identified racial and ethnic diversification of the health care workforce as one strategy for solving the seemingly intractable problem of health disparities in the ... Full text Cite

Risk factors for necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm infants: how race, gender, and health status contribute.

Journal Article Advances in neonatal care : official journal of the National Association of Neonatal Nurses · October 2008 PurposeTo examine 5 infant characteristics and health factors that might be risk factors for necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm infants.SubjectsOne hundred thirty-four preterm infants at high risk for NEC because of either having ... Full text Cite

Treatment outcomes of necrotizing enterocolitis for preterm infants.

Journal Article Journal of obstetric, gynecologic, and neonatal nursing : JOGNN · July 2007 Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is one of the most common life-threatening gastrointestinal emergencies for the preterm infant. The survival rate for preterm infants after NEC has improved over the past two decades, but complications arising from medical a ... Full text Cite

Nursing care of the premature infant with severe combined immunodeficiency disease.

Journal Article Neonatal network : NN · May 2006 Diagnosis and treatment of severe combined immunodeficiency disease (SCID) is documented in fetuses, term infants, and older children; however, there is very little information on its diagnosis and treatment in premature infants. When Duke University Medic ... Full text Cite